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Reviving the Flame

Travail de Master de Tiffany Duc

4. Context The present

4. Context The present study is enshrined in a very specific context. This chapter first frames Switzerland through a PESTEL analysis, the Hofstede’s dimension and current trends that can influence the bid. Secondly, the IOC’s vision of their Agenda 20 20 will be detailed to give a good insight of the changes the organisation wishes to bring to the OG. Finally, the ongoing bid project of Sion 2026 is described, explained, and analysed in the present context. 4.1. Switzerland’s Analysis Switzerland is situated in central Europe. It has a population of 8.3 million people. Although it is related to the EU through Bilateral Agreements, the country has not accepted to become a member of the Union. 4.1.1. Political Switzerland is a federal state, which power is shared between: the federal government (confederation), the 23 Cantons and the 2,225 municipalities. The fundamental principle of democracy is the way powers are separated, which empowers individual and help avoid abuse of power (see Appendix II): o Every Swiss citizen over 18 can vote and elect the political representatives in the Parliament (national council and council of states) o The Parliament elects in turn: the seven members of the Federal Council; the Federal Chancellor; the President and Judges of the Federal Supreme Court and the three federal courts of first instance. The Parliament is the Legislative power and its role is to pass laws. o The seven members of the Federal Council and Administration represent the Executive power and they take care of implementing the laws. o The Federal Courts oversee the Judiciary power and enforce the laws. Switzerland can be considered the most democratic country in the world, thanks to its direct democracy, that allows every citizen to take part to the national and local voting, but also change the legislation through referendums or create new laws through initiatives (Swiss Confederation, 2017). 4.1.2. Economic Switzerland is a prosperous and stable economy. In 2016, its GDP was of 658,978M CHF. The GDP per capital for the same year was of 78,700M CHF. The service sector represents 74% of the Gross Domestic Product, while the agriculture is less than one per cent. Switzerland spends every year about 3% of its GDP on research and development (R&D), three quarters of the 18.5 billion CHF this represent are funded by the private sector (Swiss Confederation, 2017). The country has only about 3% of unemployment (Confederation, 2017). Context 13

Switzerland’s registered businesses are at 99% small- and medium-sized enterprises with less than 250 employees. The EU is their most important trading partner, with 43% of export in the European Union and 78% of import. Chemicals have the widest share of exported goods with 40.2%, followed by tools, watches & clocks, and jewellery (22.5%) and machinery & electronics (16.6%) (Swiss Confederation, 2017). According the World Economic Forum (WEF) (2017), Switzerland was ranked 1st in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2017-2018. 4.1.3. Social The country is a multilingual place with four national languages: German (63%), French (23%), Italian (8%), and Romansh (0.5%). English is recognised as an official language. Swiss are mostly Christians (70% of Christian roots), but more people declare themselves atheist (22%). Islam (5%) and other religions (3%) are still a minority (Swiss Confederation, 2017). 24.6% of the total inhabitants in Switzerland are foreign nationals, primarily from Italy (15%), Germany (15%), and Portugal (13%). Life expectancy in Switzerland is around 83 years and the population growth rate was of 1.1% in 2016 (Swiss Confederation, 2016). The country is well educated and modern. It is the 5th country with the highest quality of life, according to the WEF (2017). The wealthiest 20% of the Swiss population hold 38.3% of the total income, while the 20% poorest have 8.6%. Which is considered low, and is comparable to the situation in the European Union (Swiss Confederation, 2015). 4.1.4. Technological Research and development is a capital player for the economic growth in Switzerland. Internationally, Switzerland is very competitive. It is also one of the country to invest most in R&D. Public research funding focuses widely on proactive work between researchers, international cooperation and a high level of competitiveness (Swiss Confederation, 2017). Switzerland has seven institutions in the top 200 of world university rankings and three in the top 100, with the ETH (Swiss Federal institute of Technology) Zürich ranked 9th, and the EPF Lausanne 30th (Times Higher Education, 2017). The country also ranks high in various fields like physics, chemistry, earth sciences (1st); life sciences (3rd); agriculture, biology and environmental sciences (1st); clinical medicine (7th); technical sciences and engineering, information technology (1st). Furthermore, Switzerland offers a wide range of study choices with cantonal universities, federal institutes of technology, universities of teacher education and universities of applied sciences (UAS). The UAS give the opportunity to develop the capability to apply scientific knowledge and methodologies by focusing on applied research and development (Swiss Confederation, 2015). Context 14