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Reviving the Flame

Travail de Master de Tiffany Duc

In 2012 and 2013 two

In 2012 and 2013 two proposals limiting secondary home building divided the countryside and cities. Later, an initiative to reduce CO 2 emission and environmental impacts by 2050 drew a barrier between conservatives and progressives (Swiss Confederation, 2017; De Buman, 2017). Examples are multiple, but the author emphasises these because they are capital to this work. Indeed, for some years Switzerland shows concerns for environmental and climate changes. The three voting above were all accepted and are targeting major issues such as “cold beds” in tourism, reduction of buildable area in the countryside, decrease of human waste in the atmosphere and nature, and a more local and sustainable consumption of goods. These transformations demonstrate Swiss people’s wish for a greener and more sustainable lifestyle (ATS, 2015). Climate change is also a major issue in the tourism industry. It is recognised that Switzerland showcases its tourism offers with snow sports. Yet, the country is facing radical alterations during the winter season, with snowfalls varying in quantity and time (Swiss Confederation, 2011). This issue is leading the debate in the political and tourism world on whether to continue selling winter sports as a prime characteristic of the country or operate a shift toward summer offers (Wicky, 2017; Swiss Info, 2011). Additionally, national statistics show that the youth is less and less present on the slopes. Several reasons are presented, such as climate change that makes it difficult to find areas with good snow conditions, weather, or the cost of these sports, which get people to choose other activities. Furthermore, about 85% of kids in Switzerland who come from immigrant families, called “second generation”, do not ski at all, which is seen as a cultural issue too (O’Dea, 2014; De Buman, 2017; Stricker, 2017). Lastly, a crucial trend that influences both sport and tourism is education. For several years, schools in Switzerland first diminished and even cancelled all winter sport days within their institutions. Since every canton organises their schooling systems independently from the confederation, such initiative is feasible. This situation highlights the issue winter sports have to attract youth on the slopes even though the Confederation already voted for a mandatory ski day at school per year (ATS, 2014). There are two key factors to this trend. First, there is a “deficiency discourse” from Swiss politicians. Indeed, these last years, certain country representatives emphasized on a lack of snow, or the “death” of winter tourism, scaring tourists away (Riva, 2017). Second, the region’s “church clock” mind-set or parochialism emphasises its individualism, which can be seen between and within cantons (Crettenand, 2017; De Buman, 2017; Délèze, 2017). The above trends are tightly linked to social themes: they demonstrate an environmental consciousness from the population and the influence climate change has on the country; they show issues in national cohesion with the Röstigraben and parochialism, which are counterproductive for tourism and the society; and they highlight a decrease in winter sports participation due to a deficiency discourse from politicians. Context 17

4.4. The Agenda 20 20 & the International Olympic Committee The author proposes in this section to present the main goals and ideals of the Agenda 20 20 created by the IOC. The explanation first explains how the agenda was created and then presents four of the 40 recommendations to demonstrate their importance in this context of intangible social heritage. As an answer to their gigantism, the IOC decided to renew the Games’ organisation (Clivaz, 2017; Reynard, 2017). Since February 2014, more than 1,200 ideas from 270 contributions, and 43,500 emails were received by the IOC. These were submitted by a wide range of stakeholder willing to see the IOC improve the Games. These proposals were included to 14 working groups in charge of developing concrete proposals for the Agenda 20 20. Out of this process, 40 recommendations were formulated, voted and agreed on the 8th and 9th December 2014. Given the time laps needed for cities to prepare their bid, be elected, and organise the Games (8 years prior), the first cities able to entirely base their candidacy on the Agenda 20 20 are Paris 2024, Los Angeles 2028, and the Winter Games 2026 (IOC, 2014). The Agenda 20 20 is divided in five themes, namely: the uniqueness of the Olympic Games (13 recommendations); the athletes, at the heart of the Olympic Movement (5 rec.); Olympism in action: keep Olympism alive 365 days a year (8 rec.); IOC’s role: unity in diversity (10 rec.); and the IOC structure and organisation (4 rec.) (IOC, 2014). The 40 recommendations can be found in appendix III. This study focuses on the intangible and social themes that potential OG heritages can foster. The Agenda 20 20 possess recommendations that encourages organisers to maximise these opportunities, such as (IOC, 2014): Recommendation n°5, which goal is to “include sustainability in all aspects of the OG”. The idea is to propose sustainable development in every activity needed for the Games, may this be in social, economic, or environmental spheres. To do so, the IOC will assist the host cities in the creation and organisation of sustainable strategies. Recommendation n°22 focuses on spreading “the Olympic value-based education”. The IOC, with the help of the UNESCO, wishes to teach sport and its values in schools worldwide. Following this, an electronic platform would help sharing the Olympic values-based education programmes of the different NOCs or sport associations and foundations, that the IOC needs to identify and support. Recommendations n°23 is looking to “engage with communities”. This includes athletes, volunteers, but also youth and the public. The goal is to offer an easily accessible virtual hub where athletes, volunteers or individuals can share their experiences, feelings, etc. Such initiative can help support the IOC and the Games, but also motivate “outsiders” to take part in the event more actively. Context 18