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Reviving the Flame

Travail de Master de Tiffany Duc

Reviving the Flame Designing the Olympic Games into Blooming Opportunities for Durable Heritages I hereby declare that this research is wholly the work of Mrs. Tiffany Duc. Any other contributors or sources have either been referenced in the prescribed manner or are listed in the acknowledgements together with the nature and the scope of their contribution. Master Dissertation Author : Mrs. Tiffany Duc - 164018 Student at the NHTV University of Applied Sciences Supervisor : Mr. Herman Jan Meijers Hand in date : December 2017 Master Program Tourism Destination Management - Master Dissertation - ii

Executive Summary The Olympic Games are always increasing in size and scare people by their gigantism, the economic and social issues they can engender. Hence, public support is capital to back up a candidacy. Following the creation of the Agenda 20 20 by the IOC, the Swiss city of Sion became a potential host for the renewed Winter Games of 2026. However, the Swiss folks seems to be very sceptical in welcoming a mega-event in this time of austerities. To raise enthusiasm in the population, the promise of legacies is usually used by the coalition of beneficiaries (the IOC, OCOG, etc.) as a counter argument. Legacy provides opportunities that can be turned, through concrete action, into positive outcomes. Nonetheless, legacy is hard to define and can be both positive and negative. Furthermore, people tend to focus on economic and tangible aspects that can easily be measured and understood. This research proposes to study the case of Sion 2026’ bid from and ex ante perspective. Specifically, the study focuses on intangible legacies linked to society. The aim is to determine what heritages are desired by the Organising Committee for the Olympic Games and evaluate the potential small initiatives can bring to a mega-event’s legacies. However, opponents do not focus on a long-term vision, but rather on immediate impacts resulting from the Games: risks of deficit and oversized infrastructures. Hosting an international event is a great risk, particularly in the current context regarding security or financial investments. In addition, this scepticism also highlights the mistrust people have in the Olympic Values that unfortunately were often scorned by corruption or doping scandals. Nonetheless, the study brings interesting recommendations to the coalition of beneficiaries on what can be done prior to the Games to optimise the future achievement of legacies. To these supporters, the Games is a capital event to welcome and organise in order to re-frame and rejuvenate tourism in a mature destination. Furthermore, many stakeholders believe that sport mega-events can bring positive outcomes in various domains such as sustainable development, sport, economy, human capital, etc. In her work, the author comes to conclusion that thanks to the Agenda 20 20, the committee pays more attention to legacy planning in key themes such as sport, economy, tourism, etc. While their enthusiasm is clear, the committee faces capital challenges in this pre-bid period, and will encounter further risks if the candidacy goes on. To sustain this thesis, the author sought information in a wide range of secondary sources such as a variety of articles, both academic and general; medias; and TV shows. The study is rich in details concerning the IOC and their Games, and the ongoing context around the candidacy in Switzerland. Secondary data brought a strong base of knowledge for the author to shape her research goal and question. Executive Summary iii