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Reviving the Flame

Travail de Master de Tiffany Duc

Legacies Regarding

Legacies Regarding legacies, the committee faces two key risks, both linked with the scepticism and expectation of stakeholders. Firstly, while the Agenda 20 20 pleases people with its sustainable goals, there is no possibility for either the IOC or the OCOG to prove or insure the strategy will bring the desired benefits to the host region. The Games are now in a transition phase that will take at least two Olympiads to demonstrate that greener and more respectful Games are possible (Felli, 2017). Secondly, there is a management challenge: on which legacies to focus on, since every stakeholder is expecting to gain something different from the Games (Stricker, 2017). Just as it was explained in the literature review, it is difficult to determine what is a legacy, to whom, and how it benefits them. 5.2.2. During the Candidacy This phase has restricted risks, with main issues arising from the political and stakeholder themes. Mrs. Riva (2017) explains the 2006 bid was clearly lost due to the committee’s lack of understanding on how political alliances are capital for the IOC voting. Torino had strong relationships with IOC representatives, which led them to the victory. Today, the issue during the candidacy is to end up losing the bid again. 5.2.3. During & After the Organisation of the Games Risks here are mostly management issues that can arise from wrong decision or badly organised events. Furthermore, many problems can happen during the manifestation independently from the organisation. From a sustainable viewpoint, there are few risks during and after the event. The main issue can arise from saturated public transports and roads (Clivaz, 2017). Otherwise, it is recognised that the project is coherent in terms of environmental protection (Crettenand, 2017; Reynard, 2017; De Buman, 2017). Weather conditions can also be an issue for the event. Indeed, bad weather, storms, lack of snow, risks of avalanches, etc. are all problems that may happen, but which are inherent to any outdoor event (De Buman, 2017; Délèze, 2017; Stricker, 2017). Politically, Mr. Felli (2017) believes risks of collusion or corruption can never be excluded from any SME. To him, there are two cases of corruption: for personal or for society’s profit. The former is a great ethical problem and must be avoided, while the latter is rather a problem for the Games image since it usually drives to budget increase, which leads to public’s distrust in SMEs. While the budget is widely questioned before the bid, it is during the organisation of the OG that risks of cost overruns may arise, through indirect costs or unexpected additional expenses. As an example, depending on their evolution, terrorist attacks may, by 2026, decrease or increase the security costs (Crettenand, 2017; De Buman, 2017; Délèze, 2017; Reynard, 2017). Findings 27

Lastly, this period will be the most critical to manage legacies’ responsibilities and planning. The risk is to follow previous editions, where organisers waited too long to design and implement a legacy program, which resulted in no legacy at all (Felli, 2017). 5.3. Existing Strategies Related to the above risks, it is important to point out the existing strategies already implemented. For the environment, the committee ensures that no protected ecosystem will be damaged by the Games, by taking upstream measures and careful planning. As an example, Mr. Stricker (2017) explains their dialogue with the Pro Natura association when planning cross-country skiing in the Mosses. Mr. Bongard, director of the organisation, demonstrated the slope would stand in protected areas, and thus be controversial. Therefore, the committee changed the location for this competition. Regarding politics, the entire bid was recently published online to allow political parties to consult the project and make up their mind about it. Furthermore, the committee is open for discussion and agrees to personally present the project to the interested parties (Stricker, 2017). Linked to the budget, Mr. Stricker (2017) says the Games’ finances were calculated with an extra 30% margin to minimise potential additional costs and expenses that can arise during the event’s organisation. Additionally, organisers focus on a risk analysis strategy: all potential risks are identified, talked about, analysed, and evaluated. Additional measures are proposed and discussed, to minimise each issue, and further considerations are made to optimise preventive measures (Délèze, 2017; Stricker, 2017). Collaboration between the private organisers, the city of Sion and the Canton of Valais is already on trails to improve the bid, optimise all aspects of the organisation, and maximise benefits for the various stakeholders (Délèze, 2017). To answer critics on communication, the committee already hired a marketing company to help them improve their campaign. Working together, they focus on enhancing their message, to be clearer and more coherent. This strategy is organised to start inspiring people and reassure the population on Sion 2026’ potential (Stricker, 2017). Lastly, the IOC is now a co-worker of the Games’ organisation. The IOC will accompany each bid city in their Games’ organisation. They will provide each new host city with OG experts, who worked on successful editions. These services are proposed to (a) minimise the cost for the bids and the OG’s management, and (b) optimise the execution and implementation of strategies and knowledge in the new destinations. Indeed, Mr. Felli (2017) highlights that most cost overrun in the OG’s organisation come from badly managed human resources: COJOs tends to hire too many people way too early. Findings 28