10 months ago

Reviving the Flame

Travail de Master de Tiffany Duc

While interviewees did

While interviewees did not propose leverages to protect and enhance the environment, the committee for Paris 2024 can be taken as an example: the group signed a partnership with the French WWF and together aim at organising Green Games with positive environmental impacts (Paris 2024, 2017). 5.4.3. National Identity In Switzerland, the national identity is multifaceted: four languages, 23 Cantons. Swiss culture is varied and has its own internal issues. Mostly in Valais, locals name this the “church clock” wars, where locals tend to be more individualistic, and favour their own families before others. The canton is often seen as chauvinistic by other regions. Therefore, the OG are the occasion to change these opinion and behaviours. Sion 2026 wishes to enhance national cohesion and unity as a legacy. Although most respondents believe it can be achieved, Mr. Clivaz (2017) thinks such cohesion is possible but will rather be a “momentum” during the Games than a long-term benefit. Throughout the interviews, many stakeholders believe a SME like the OG can help modify behaviours and mind-sets. Mr. Crettenand (2017) and Mr. Délèze (2017) both see there are positive outcomes in working on an intercantonal project. Themselves saw benefits arising from similar projects: it drives people to put their quarrel aside, work together, and create fruitful synergies. But how can this be achieved? Mrs. Riva (2017) and Mr. Felli (2017) see Lillehammer as a good example of national unity. What made it work was the excellent communication from the Norwegian government to its people. The whole country wanted the Games, and they created this special atmosphere by bringing the Olympic Values and unity forward. Hence, some interviewees think that to attain this cohesion, the Valais needs to alter its “closed” mind-set by promoting a Swiss candidacy, with an open-mind and enthusiasm toward the whole country (Crettenand, 2017; De Buman, 2017; Délèze, 2017). Overall, a good communication network needs to be created between the organising cantons, the public, and the rest of the country. Collaboration and reconciliation must be highlighted to foster unity (Délèze, 2017; Felli, 2017). To Mr. Stricker (2017), cohesion can also be attained throughout volunteering programs, which can drive people to meet each other, improve social encounters, and reinforce unity. Mr. Felli (2017) believes the social organisation of the event offers a good understanding of each other. It is through social projects that the IOC created the principle of First Nations, forcing colonised country to include autochthone in their decision-making processes. In that respect, Mr. Crettenand (2017) thinks it is important to create platforms where locals can propose ideas and feel part of the organisation. Such platform can (a) create a community with positive synergies and enthusiasm, (b) unify people and ease future actions such as, hiring volunteers, and (c) increase positive word-of-mouth around the community. Findings 31

Mr. Crettenand (2017) further proposes to enhance collaboration, by presenting a model of “shared authorities”. The idea is to design teams with key stakeholders. Each professional will have a certain decision-making power depending on the domain of action. Brainstorming session with heterogeneous actors can also bring new vision and improve a project. Also, various happenings and meetings can be eventthemed and take place in areas with no contests to spread the benefits throughout the country. Lastly, a word often used is “inclusion”. Respondents think the OG are an opportunity for minorities to be better included in the community. As an example, favouring offers and infrastructure for disable allow them to participate to local activities and events. In La Tzoumaz, the local authority invested in a “5 senses path” in the mountain’s forest accessible to all (incl. wheelchairs and strollers). Similar initiatives can be enshrined in the OG legacy projects to improve inclusion of minorities (Crettenand, 2017). 5.4.4. Human Capital Human capital is the notion that gathered most positive answers from respondents, that Sion 2026 wishes to enhance through the Games. While some interviewees put into question how positive impact can be sustained in the long term, Mr. Clivaz (2017) highlights the benefit of the Olympic Generation: people who worked for the OG and received an experience and education in the event sector thanks to the OG. Education is a major interest, most respondents think the Games can be used to implement new study programmes in existing infrastructure like the EPFL, EPFZ or UAS. Such cursus can enhance knowhow and competencies in the tertiary sector, while using local infrastructures. In example, Mr. Reynard (2017) is convinced the country must value the tourism sector through education and higher standards to become more competitive and value local employment with better salaries. Figure 10 UAS Valais, at the heart of the Alps Source: Website HES-SO Valais Similarly, the sport domain can benefit from new curriculums. Mrs Riva (2017) already proposed the creation of an Olympic School for the 2006 candidacy (see appendix XI), which goal was to promote the Olympic Movement, Values and sustainable development to the youth through academic curriculums (Sion 2006' Committee, 1999). Similar legacy projects can be redesigned to benefit local population that relies solely on the service sectors in the Alpine regions. Findings 32