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VbvAstE-001

Book Boris V. Vasiliev Astrophysics

Contents 1 Introduction

Contents 1 Introduction 9 1.1 Astrophysics and astronomical measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2 The basic postulate of astrophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.3 The another postulate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.3.1 Thus two postulates can be formulated. Which of these postulates is correct? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3.2 The Galileo’s method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3.3 What does the the astronomic measurement data express? . . . 13 1.4 About a star theory development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2 The energy-favorable state of hot dense plasma 15 2.1 The properties of a hot dense plasma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1.1 A hot plasma and Boltzman’s distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1.2 The correction for the Fermi-statistic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.1.3 The correction for correlation of particles . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2 The energy-preferable state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.1 The energy-preferable density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.2 The energy-preferable temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.3 Are accepted assumptions correct? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3 The gravity induced electric polarization 21 3.1 Plasma cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2 The equilibrium of a nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.3 The equilibrium in electron gas subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4 The internal structure of a star 25 4.1 The plasma equilibrium in the star core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.2 The main parameters of a star core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.3 The equilibrium inside the star atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.4 The radial dependence of density and temperature . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.5 The mass of the star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5

5 The main parameters of star 29 5.1 The energy of a star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.1.1 The kinetic energy of plasma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.1.2 The potential energy of star plasma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.2 The temperature of a star core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.2.1 The energy of the black radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.2.2 The full energy of a star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.3 Main star parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.3.1 The star mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.3.2 Radii of stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.3.3 The R ⋆/R 0 ratio and R 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.3.4 The temperature of a star surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.3.5 The comparison with measuring data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6 The thermodynamic relations 39 6.1 The thermodynamic relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.1.1 The c P /c V ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6.1.2 The Poisson’s adiabat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 6.2 The mass-radius ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 6.3 The mass-temperature-luminosity relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 6.3.1 The compilation of the results of calculations . . . . . . . . . . 52 7 Magnetic fields of stars 55 7.1 Magnetic moments of stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 7.2 Magnetic fields of stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 8 The apsidal rotation 61 8.1 The apsidal rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 8.2 The equilibrium form of the core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 8.3 The angular velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 8.4 The comparison with observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 9 The solar seismical oscillations 67 9.1 The spectrum of solar oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 9.2 The sound speed in plasma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 9.3 The basic elastic oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 9.4 The low frequency oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 9.5 The spectrum of solar oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 10 A mechanism of stabilization for neutron-excess nuclei in plasma 75 10.1 Neutron-excess nuclei and the neutronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 10.1.1 The electron cloud of plasma cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 10.2 The Thomas-Fermi screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 10.3 The screening with relativistic electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 6

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