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Book Boris V. Vasiliev Astrophysics

while the radius of the

while the radius of the star will R ≈ 10 −2 R odot . (11.11) Easy to see that the density of matter and the radius are characteristic of cosmic bodies, called dwarfs. The neutron matter. Pulsars. Dwarfs may be considered as stars where a process of neutronization is just beginning. At a nuclear density, plasma turns into neutron matter. 1 At taking into account the above assumptions, the stars composed of neutron matter, must also have the same equilibrium condition Eq.((11.9)). As the density of neutron matter: ( n n = p3 F 3π 2 = ξ3 mnc ) 3 (11.12) 3 3π 2 (where m n - the neutron mass), then the condition ((11.9)) allows to determine the equilibrium density of matter within a neutron star n n = n n ≈ 4 · 10 39 (11.13) particles in cm 3 . The substitution of the values of the neutron density in the equilibrium condition Eq.(5.2) shows that, in accordance with our assessment of all the neutron stars in the steady state should have a mass of order of magnitude equal to the mass of the Sun. The measured mass distribution of pulsar composing binary stars [21] is shown on Fig.11.2. It can be considered as a confirmation of the last conclusion. 11.2.4 The hot relativistic plasma.Quasars Plasma is hot if its temperature is higher than degeneration temperature of its electron gas. The ratio of plasma temperature in the core of a star to the temperature of degradation of its electron gas for case of non-relativistic hot star plasma is (Eq.(2.23)) T ⋆ ≈ 40 (11.14) T F (n ⋆) it can be supposed that the same ratio must be characteristic for the case of a relativistic hot star. At this temperature, the radiation pressure plays a main role and accordingly the equation of the pressure balance takes the form: GM 2 6RV ( ) ≈ π2 (kT ⋆) 4 3 T⋆ ≈ kT n (11.15) 45 (c) 3 T F 1 At nuclear density neutrons and protons are indistinguishable inside pulsars as inside a huge nucleus. It permits to suppose a possibility of gravity induced electric polarization in this matter. 87

N 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 M pulsar /M o Figure 11.2: The mass distribution of pulsars from binary systems [21].On abscissa the logarithm of pulsar mass in solar mass is shown. 88

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