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Book Boris V. Vasiliev Astrophysics

Figure 11.4: The

Figure 11.4: The categorization of celestial bodies 91

to p F ≈ mc, its energy and pressure can depend on the temperature if this temperature it is high enough. 2 It seems, there is no thermodynamical prohibition to imagine this matter so hot when the neutron gas is non-degenerate. An estimation shows that it can be possible if mass of this body is near to 10 50 g or even to 10 55 g. As it is accepted to think that full mass of the Universe is about 10 53 g, it can be assumed that on an early stage of development of Universe, there was some celestial body with the mass about 10 53 g composed by the neutron matter at the approximately nuclear density with at the temperature above 10 12 K. After some time, with temperature decreased it has lost its stability and decayed into quasars with mass up to 10 12 M Ch , consisting of the non-degenerate relativistic plasma at T > 10 10 K. After next cooling at loosing of stability they was decaying on galaxies of hot stars with mass about M ≈ M Ch and core temperature about T ≈ 10 7 K, composed by non-relativistic hot plasma. A next cooling must leads hot stars to decaying on dwarfs, pulsars, planets or may be on small bodies. The substances of these bodies (in their cores) consists of degenerate plasma (degenerate electron subsystem and cold nuclear subsystem) or cold neutron matter, it makes them stable in expanding and cooling Universe. 3 It is important to emphasize, that the gravity induced electric polarization excludes the possibility of the gravitational collapse as the last stage of the star evolutions. 11.4 About ≪black holes≫ It seems that the idea about the ≪black holes≫ existence is organic related to the suggestion about an inevitable collapse of large cosmic bodies on the last stage of their evolutions. However, the models of collapsing masses were appearing as a consequence of the rejection from attention of the gravity induced electric polarization of the intrastellar plasma, which was considered in previous chapters. If to take into account this mechanism, the possibility of collapse must be excludes. It allows newly to take a look on the ≪black hole≫ problem. In accordance with the standard approach, the Schwarzshield radius of ≪black hole≫ with M is r bh = 2GM c 2 (11.18) and accordingly the average density of ≪black holes≫: γ bh = 3c 6 32πM 2 G 3 . (11.19) The estimations which was made in previous chapters are showing that all large inwardly-galactic objects of all classes - a stars, dwarves, pulsars, giants - possess the mass of the order M Ch (or 10M Ch ). As the density of these objects are small relatively 2 The ultra-relativistic matter with p F ≫ mc is possessed by limiting pressure which is not depending on temperature. 3 The temperature of plasma inside these bodies can be really quite high as electron gas into dwarfs, for example, will be degenerate even at temperature T ≈ 10 9 K. 92

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