10 months ago

2017 HCHB_digital

Colds A cold is a

Colds A cold is a contagious viral illness that affects the mucous membranes of the head and chest, including the nose, throat, sinuses and ears. Most colds last around one to two weeks and do not usually cause serious problems in healthy people. Some people may get a bacterial infection after a cold – such as an ear or sinus infection – which may make them unwell for longer. Colds are easily transmitted through direct contact with the infected person or infected surfaces or objects, or by breathing in infectious airborne droplets created through sneezing and coughing. Colds can happen at any time of the year but are more common during the colder months (autumn through spring), when people are more likely to spend more time indoors, in close proximity to other people. Factors which contribute to a lower immunity, such as a poor diet, stress and smoking, also make a person more susceptible to viral infection. Older people get fewer colds as they have built up an immunity to some of the viruses that cause colds. Colds generally get better by themselves, but over-the-counter medicines may be taken to improve symptoms. Symptoms There are over 200 different viruses that can cause colds so symptoms of a cold can vary. The most classic presenting symptom is that of a runny, congested nose with sneezing. Cough, sore throat, mild fever, headache, earache and red, watery eyes may also occur. Initial assessment Deciding if your customer has a cold, influenza (the flu) or allergic rhinitis can be difficult. What do you immediately notice as their most obvious symptom? Do their eyes appear red or watery or look sore? Are they sneezing a lot or is their nose just runny? Do they actually look unwell and are complaining of a sore throat or body aches and pains? Symptoms of a cold that are similar to those of allergic rhinitis include an itchy nose, roof of the mouth or eyes; sneezing; a blocked or runny nose; a sore or tickly throat; and red, itchy or watery eyes. However, colds generally present with other symptoms in addition to nasal symptoms, such as a cough or a headache. People with colds generally do not report symptoms such as a high fever, joint pains, or body chills; these are more typical of flu symptoms. Colds can also occur at any time throughout the year, whereas the flu is more Refer to PHARMACIST The following questions aim to identify customers who would benefit from further input from a pharmacist. Your initial assessment or a caregiver's history may have already provided some answers. Decide if any further questions still need to be asked and refer any “yes” answers to a pharmacist. • Does the person have any other health conditions (eg, heart or lung problems, immunosuppression, diabetes, is pregnant or breastfeeding)? • Does the person take any other medication, either prescribed by a doctor or bought from a shop or supermarket (including herbal/ complementary medications)? • Is only one nostril affected or is the discharge thick, cloudy or smelly? • Does the customer have a high temperature, body chills, joint aches or pains and/or feel unwell? • Does the customer have earache or facial/sinus pain? • Has the cold lasted more than a week? • Is the sufferer a child under 12 years old or elderly? • Do the symptoms seem to occur seasonally (it may be hay fever)? • Does the customer have any allergies to medicines? Cough and cold medicines in children Colds occur frequently in children (up to six to eight times a year). Nasal symptoms usually improve within seven to 10 days; however, coughs may persist for three weeks or more following a cold. Advise parents or caregivers not to give cough and cold medicines to children aged less than six years, and to seek pharmacist advice before using these preparations in children aged six to 12 years. Instead, paracetamol may be used occasionally to relieve any pain or discomfort, and natural remedies containing ingredients such as glycerol, honey, or lemon can be suggested to help soothe irritated throats in children older than one year (see Sore Throat for more information about recognising Strep. Throat and who to refer). prevalent from May to September. Sneezing is common with colds, and coughs associated with colds are more likely to be productive. The symptoms of a cold usually take a few days to develop, compared with flu symptoms that usually come on within three to four hours. Advice for customers • See your doctor if symptoms worsen or persist for longer than a week. • Keep warm and rest and practise good hygiene (eg, wash hands frequently, sneeze or cough into a tissue). 1 Benrimoj et al. Clin Drug Invest 2001;21:183-93 [BH5009] 2 Blagden M et al. Int J Clin Prac 2002; 56(2):95-100. Pharmacy Medicine. Contains: Flurbiprofen 8.75mg. Prec: Asthma or regular concomitant medications, history of peptic ulcer, GI bleeding, first 6 months of pregnancy. Contra: Stomach disorder incl ulcer, renal and/or liver impairment, heart failure, pregnancy 3rd trimester, prolonged use (> 3 days), hypersensitivity to NSAIDs/aspirin. Dosage: Use lowest effective dose for shortest possible duration. Adults & children > 12 yrs: 1 loz every 3-6 hrs (max 8 loz/day). Reckitt Benckiser, Auckland. 0800 40 30 30 TAPS DA1703DB. Page 34 HEALTHCARE HANDBOOK 2017-2018 Common Disorders

CONTINUING OTC EDUCATION TREATMENT OPTIONS Category Examples Comments Simple analgesics Saline products Decongestant nasal sprays Single and combination products Inhalations [GENERAL SALE] eg, paracetamol (Pamol range, Paracare range, Panadol, Lemsip Cold & Flu Original Lemon Sachets) [GENERAL SALE] eg, saline products (Dimetapp Saline Nasal Drops/Spray, Otrivin Clear Saline Plus) [PHARMACY ONLY MEDICINE] eg, oxymetazoline (Dimetapp 12 Hour, Drixine No Drip), xylometazoline (Otrivin Junior*, Otrivin Adult*, Otrivin Plus* [+ ipratropium]) [GENERAL SALE] eg, guaiphenesin (Mucinex Expectorant/Maximum Strength) eg, phenylephrine (Dimetapp PE Nasal Decongestant) eg, phenylephrine + paracetamol (Codral Relief Max Strength Cold & Flu + Decongestant*, Lemsip Cold & Flu) eg, phenylephrine + ibuprofen (Nurofen Cold & Flu PE*) eg, phenylephrine + paracetamol + guaiphenesin (Codral Relief Max Strength 6 Signs Cold & Flu*, Lemsip All in One Capsules*, Lemsip Cough Max Mucus Hot Drink* eg, paracetamol + phenylephrine + caffeine (Lemsip Max Cold & Flu Day & Night Capsules*) [PHARMACY ONLY MEDICINE] eg, phenylephrine + paracetamol (Maxiclear Cold & Flu Relief) eg, phenylephrine + paracetamol + cough suppressant (Codral Cold & Flu*) eg, phenylephrine + paracetamol + antihistamine (Codral Nightime Cold & Flu*) eg, phenylephrine + paracetamol + antihistamine + cough suppressant (Codral All in One*, Codral Cold & Flu + Cough*, Coldrex PE Cold & Flu Day & Night) eg, phenylephrine + antihistamine (Demazin Syrup, Dimetapp Elixir Cold & Allergy, Maxiclear Cold & Nasal Relief*) eg, decongestant + antihistamine + cough suppressant (Dimetapp DM Elixir) eg, phenylephrine + paracetamol + codeine + antihistamine (Codral Multi Action Cold & Flu*, Codral Day & Night*) eg, paracetamol + antihistamine + cough suppressant (Dimetapp Daytime Nightime) [GENERAL SALE] eg, combinations of volatile oils (Olbas Oil Inhalant Decongestant, Vicks Vapo Steam Inhalant) Use for headache or general sinus pain relief. Saline drops/spray help liquefy mucus and soothe irritated nasal membranes. Safe for infants, toddlers, pregnant women or those with chronic congestion. The topical decongestants oxymetazoline and xylometazoline are effective at unblocking congested nasal passages. Decongestants should not be used for longer than three days at one time because they may cause rebound congestion when discontinued. Refer to the packet for ingredients which may include a decongestant to unblock a congested nose (eg, phenylephrine), an analgesic, an antihistamine to dry up runny noses (eg, loratadine, chlorpheniramine), a cough suppressant to stop a dry cough (eg, pholcodine, dextromethorphan), an expectorant to help expel mucus from the lungs (eg, guaiphenesin), or a mucolytic (eg, bromhexine) to liquefy mucus and phlegm. Analgesics (eg, paracetamol, ibuprofen, codeine) can help make a person feel more comfortable if they are in pain. Watch for double-ups with other analgesic medicines. Pharmacy staff should monitor sales of codeine and be alert for misuse. Warn customers that codeine is an addictive substance and should not be used for more than three days at a time. Constipation or drowsiness may also occur. Some antihistamines may cause drowsiness and affect a person’s ability to drive or operate machinery. Avoid alcohol. Cough suppressants (eg, pholcodine, dextromethorphan) control or suppress the cough reflex and can provide relief from a dry, unproductive cough. Dextromethorphan can interact with other medicines that also have serotonergic activity (eg, antidepressants, tramadol, lithium, St John’s wort). Cough expectorants (eg, guaiphenesin) loosen mucus and phlegm, allowing it to be coughed up more easily and can help a chesty cough. Mucolytics (eg, bromhexine) are often included with cough expectorants as these help to liquefy the mucus and phlegm aiding its passage from the lungs to the mouth. Coughs associated with colds are more likely to be productive. People who take other medicines or have other medical conditions may be unable to take cold and flu tablets – check with your pharmacist. Products containing guaiphenesin, ipecacuanha, dextromethorphan, pholcodine, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine [PRESCRIPTION], doxylamine, brompheniramine, promethazine, chlorphenamine, triprolidine or diphenhydramine should NOT be given to children aged less than six years and pharmacist advice should be sought before using them in children aged less than 12 years. Place a few drops in a bowl of hot water and inhale the steam, or on a tissue tucked inside a pillow case at night. Avoid in very young children. Antibacterial prophylaxis [PHARMACIST ONLY] eg, Buccaline May help protect against bacterial complications from a cold. Other products eg, Bonnington's Irish Moss* eg, Neil Med Naspira Nasal-Oral Aspirator Bonnington's Irish Moss contains menthol, camphor, liquorice extract and carrageenan (a seaweed extract). Nasal-oral aspirators allow nasal mucus to be removed efficiently. Natural / herbal products / supplements Andrographis, echinacea, garlic, honey, ivy leaf, olive leaf, probiotics, propolis, Siberian ginseng, vitamin C, zinc Viralex* (contains olive leaf, Saccharomyces cerevisia, zinc, vitamin D3, and astragalus Andrographis, garlic, and Siberian ginseng may reduce cold symptoms if started within 72 hours of symptom onset. Note: allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported with andrographis use. Echinacea may reduce cold severity and duration by 10%–30%; longterm use not recommended. Honey can help soothe a dry throat and relieve cough in children older than one year – a single night-time dose of 2.5–10ml was as effective in children as dextromethorphan. Ivy leaf is an expectorant and is commonly used in Germany alongside conventional medicines for asthma and bronchitis. Olive leaf can help boost the immune system. Probiotics may reduce the frequency of colds. Propolis may decrease cold duration. Vitamin C (1–3g/day) may decrease cold symptom duration by one to one and-a-half days. Zinc lozenges may decrease cold duration. Viralex may help to strengthen the immune system. Products with an asterisk have a detailed listing in the Colds section in OTC Products, starting on page 224. TACKLE PAINFUL SORE THROATS WITH STREPFEN INTENSIVE Strepfen Intensive’s Pharmacy only formula contains an anti-inflammatory ingredient to tackle the signs of inflammation associated with painful sore throats: Swelling 1 • Pain 1,2 • Difficulty Swallowing 2 Page 35

  • Page 1 and 2: HEALTHCARE HANDBOOK incorporating t
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  • Page 5 and 6: Index Common Disorders Acne--------
  • Page 7 and 8: Asthma and COPD CONTINUING OTC EDUC
  • Page 9 and 10: Head and scalp • Condition of hai
  • Page 16 and 17: Acne Acne is a common skin problem
  • Page 18 and 19: Allergies An allergy occurs when th
  • Page 20 and 21: Asthma and COPD Asthma New Zealand
  • Page 22 and 23: Baby Feeding Breastfeeding is best
  • Page 24 and 25: Bites and Stings Bites and stings c
  • Page 26 and 27: Bruises, Scars, Spider Veins Bruise
  • Page 28 and 29: Childhood Diseases and Immunisation
  • Page 30 and 31: Childhood Diseases and Immunisation
  • Page 32 and 33: Childhood Diseases and Immunisation
  • Page 34 and 35: Childhood Diseases and Immunisation
  • Page 36 and 37: Childhood Pain and Baby Teething Pa
  • Page 40 and 41: Cold Sores Cold sores are fluid-fil
  • Page 42 and 43: Constipation Constipation is the te
  • Page 44 and 45: Contraception & Sexual Wellbeing Co
  • Page 46 and 47: Contraception: Emergency Emergency
  • Page 48 and 49: Coughs: Dry Coughs are called dry o
  • Page 50 and 51: Coughs: Productive Coughs are consi
  • Page 52 and 53: Cuts, Abrasions and Blisters This t
  • Page 54 and 55: Cystitis [Bladder Infection] Cystit
  • Page 56 and 57: Dandruff Dandruff is a common condi
  • Page 58 and 59: Dermatitis/Eczema Dermatitis is a g
  • Page 60 and 61: Diabetes Diabetes is a condition in
  • Page 62 and 63: Diarrhoea and Vomiting Diarrhoea an
  • Page 64 and 65: Dry Skin Dry skin is skin that lack
  • Page 66 and 67: Ear Conditions Our ears allow us to
  • Page 68 and 69: Eye Conditions Almost two-thirds of
  • Page 70 and 71: Eye Conditions (continued) Type Sym
  • Page 72 and 73: Eyes: Contact Lenses Contact lenses
  • Page 74 and 75: Fever What is fever Fever is define
  • Page 76 and 77: Foot Care Common foot problems incl
  • Page 78 and 79: Fungal Infections: Superficial Supe
  • Page 80 and 81: Fungal Nail Infections (Onychomycos
  • Page 82 and 83: Gout Historically known as the “d
  • Page 84 and 85: Haemorrhoids Haemorrhoids (also cal
  • Page 86 and 87: Hair Loss Alopecia is the medical t
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    Hay Fever Hay fever (also called in

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    Hay Fever (continued) TREATMENT OPT

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    Headache Headaches are common and c

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    Head Lice Head lice (pediculosis ca

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    Heart Health Cardiovascular (CV) di

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    Indigestion, Heartburn and Gastriti

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    Influenza Influenza (flu) is a comm

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    Influenza (continued) TREATMENT OPT

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    Iron Deficiency Iron is an essentia

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    Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable

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    Menopause Menopause - the “change

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    Migraine Migraines are a type of se

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    Muscular Aches, Pains and Tightness

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    Nappy Rash Nappy rash is a red rash

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    Oral Health Oral health disorders i

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    Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is th

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    Osteoporosis Osteoporosis (meaning

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    Period Pain and Endometriosis Perio

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    Poisonings Any substance that has t

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    Pregnancy Tests and Supplements Hom

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    Preventive Health There are certain

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    Probiotics and Prebiotics Probiotic

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    Psoriasis Psoriasis is a long-term

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    Scabies Scabies is a very contagiou

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    Shingles Shingles (herpes zoster) i

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    Sinus and Nasal Problems Sinuses ar

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    Sleep Problems and Snoring Sleep is

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    Smoking Cessation Almost 5000 New Z

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    Sore Throat Sore throats are very c

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    Strains and Sprains Sprains and str

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    Sun Care Sunburn Sunburn occurs fro

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    Sun Care: Eye Protection Protecting

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    Sweating: Excessive (Hyperhidrosis)

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    Toothache Toothache is the term use

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    Travel Health (including Vaccinatio

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    Travel Sickness Travel, or motion,

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    Urinary Incontinence Urinary incont

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    Urticaria (Hives) Urticaria refers

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    Vaginal Health The vagina is a clos

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    Varicose Veins and Support Stocking

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    Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Vi

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    Warts Warts are benign (non-cancero

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    Weight Loss Obesity has reached epi

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    Worms Pinworms (Enterobius vermicul

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    Wound Care Our skin acts as a barri

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    Wound Care (continued) Wound type M

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    Chapter References (continued) Diar

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    Chapter References (continued) Gord

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    Significant learning opportunity: W

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    PharmacyToday A part of your everyd

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    OTC Medicines: Interactions When se

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    OTC Medicines: Interactions OTC Med

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    OTC Medicines: Interactions OTC Med

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    OTC Medicines: Interactions OTC Med

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    OTC Medicines: Precautions OTC Medi

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    OTC Medicines: Precautions OTC Medi

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    OTC Medicines: Adverse Effects OTC

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    Herbal Supplements: Interactions He

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    Herbal Supplements: Interactions He

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    Herbal Supplements: Interactions He

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    Herbal Supplements: Interactions He

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    Drugs in Sport Treating Athletes Me

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    Drugs in Aviation AVIATION - PRECAU

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    Drugs in Pregnancy Drug use in preg

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    NZ Support Groups ADHD Association

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    NZ Support Groups New Zealand AIDS

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    HEAT or INFLAMMATION Unlike heat ru

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    OTC Products Over-the-counter produ

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    OTC Products Index Foot Care - Fung

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    »» Childhood Pain and Baby Teethi

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    »» Foot Care - Fungal Infections

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  • Page 258 and 259:

    »» Irritable Bowel Syndrome GASTR

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    »» Sexual Wellbeing - Contracepti

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  • Page 278 and 279:

    An ENHANCED ELearning Experience As

  • Page 280 and 281:

    Product Index ANIME LUBRICANT 50ML-

  • Page 282 and 283:

    Manufacturer’s Index AFT Pharmace

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    Topiramate Actavis Topiramate 25mg,

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