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2017 HCHB_digital

Childhood Diseases and

Childhood Diseases and Immunisations Several infectious diseases are more prevalent in children than in adults; however, non-immune adults are still susceptible to catching these diseases. Immunisation is the process by which a child or adult is made resistant to an infectious disease, typically by administration of a vaccine. It is a proven tool for controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases and the World Health Organization estimates it averts between two million and three million deaths per year. Benefits of immunisation far outweigh risks but customers seeking reassurance about the safety and effectiveness of specific vaccines are best referred to the Immunisation Advisory Centre (www.immune.org.nz or 0800 IMMUNE). This organisation is based at the University of Auckland and provides independent, factual information based on international and New Zealand scientific research regarding vaccine-preventable diseases and the benefits and risks of immunisation. The National Immunisation Schedule (NIS) is the series of vaccines that are generally offered free to babies, children, adolescents and adults of certain ages in New Zealand, although some vaccines have restrictions on their use. Revaccination of children following significant immunosuppression (eg, as a result of chemotherapy) is also funded for most vaccines on the NIS, as long as eligibility rules apply. The current schedule can be found on the Ministry of Health’s website at www.health.govt.nz. Detailed consumer information on diseases and vaccines, including diseases not covered by the National Immunisation Schedule, can be found in the YourHealth section of this website. Pharmacy staff can help improve immunisation rates by: • reminding caregivers about the Well Child programme (see text box opposite) TREATMENT OPTIONS Category Examples Comments Simple analgesics Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [GENERAL SALE] eg, paracetamol – less than 20 tablets, (Panadol, Paracare) [PHARMACY ONLY MEDICINE] eg, paracetamol – greater than 20 tablets, suspension (Pamol range, Paracare range) [PHARMACY ONLY MEDICINE] eg, ibuprofen (Advil, Fenpaed, Nurofen) Paracetamol has few side effects and is safe for occasional use at recommended dosages. Take care to avoid overdose. Advise customers to check strength, formulation and dosage instructions on the back of the product packet, and to never exceed these. Given to relieve discomfort rather than to bring down a fever (for more information see Fever). Paracetamol is not recommended for routine use before or after vaccination as it may decrease the antibody response to vaccines, and therefore lasting immunity (infection-fighting ability). Avoid NSAIDs in chickenpox due to the rare possibility of complications. Ibuprofen may not be suitable for some children (see Childhood Pain and Baby Teething). Anti-pruritics Vaccinations: tetanus/ diphtheria/ pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal Natural / herbal products / supplements [GENERAL SALE] eg, Pinetarsol, PoxClin [PRESCRIPTION] –except when administered by a registered pharmacist who has successfully completed an approved vaccinator training course Honey, calendula ointment, zinc cream, vitamin A ointment Tar-based pine oil products are useful in the bath to help reduce itching. PoxClin has a natural cooling action and helps enhance the skin's protective barrier. Also relieves itch. Tdap vaccine (eg, Boostrix) can only be administered by pharmacists to persons aged 18 years or over. Meningococcal vaccine (Menactra, Neis Vac-C) can only be administered by pharmacists to persons aged 16 years or over. Influenza (see Influenza), varicella (see Shingles) and Dukoral (see Travel Health) vaccines can also be administered by suitably trained pharmacists. Refer to a doctor or the Immunisation Handbook available at www.health.govt.nz for more information about cost and availability of all vaccines. One to two teaspoonfuls of honey taken at night can be effective at relieving cough associated with some childhood diseases. Calendula or vitamin A ointment or zinc cream may help relieve irritated skin and reduce scarring (ie, from chickenpox). Page 24 HEALTHCARE HANDBOOK 2017-2018 Common Disorders

CONTINUING OTC EDUCATION Well Child Programme All New Zealand children, from birth to five years, are entitled to participate in the free Well Child programme (www.wellchild.org.nz), a package of 12 core health contacts plus a general practitioner check at six weeks, corresponding to the six-week immunisations. Pharmacy staff should encourage customers with young children to fully access this programme, particularly those servicing low socioeconomic areas, as good health in a child's early years sets the foundation for a life-long good health and well being. Observation and assessment of the child's health and development is undertaken during each visit, as well as discussions about breastfeeding, immunisations, and safe sleeping practices. Any concerns about a child's vision and hearing can also be investigated further. Well Child also serves to provide support to the baby's mother, and can help with bonding problems, parenting skills, mental health concerns, income or housing issues, or alcohol or substance misuse disorders. • displaying and discussing information on the relative risks and benefits of immunisation • informing customers about current epidemics and checking their immunisation status. Some immunisations can cause pain and fever. While the use of paracetamol or ibuprofen to relieve pain or discomfort immediately prior to or following vaccination is not contraindicated, experts do not recommend that pain-relieving medicines be routinely used as use has been associated with a lower immune response. However, if a child is distressed by fever, discomfort or pain following immunisation, they may be given. Report any suspected adverse reactions to vaccines to the Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (for details about how to report see Medicines Safety, page 183). Initial assessment The majority of children who are unwell, look unwell, but it can be difficult to tell whether a child is seriously ill or not. Always encourage caregivers with unwell children to talk to the pharmacist, unless they have already seen a doctor and are comfortable with looking after the child. Any child with difficulty breathing, with a blue tinge around the lips or tongue, having difficulty feeding or refusing to drink, who is overly sleepy or floppy, feels cold to the touch, is not urinating, or is under three months old and looks unwell needs urgent medical attention. Always be mindful that most childhood diseases are contagious, and pharmacy staff are at high risk of exposure to some of these conditions that are still prevalent in the community, particularly during epidemics. Unimmunised pharmacy staff without natural immunity to common infections need to be particularly careful, and should be encouraged to bring their immunisation status up to date. Refer to a PHARMACIST/DOCTOR Refer all children with suspected infectious diseases to a pharmacist for further advice and evaluation. For each infectious disease on the following pages, guidance is offered on when pharmacists should refer customers to their doctor. General management advice Children should remain at home until they are no longer infectious (see individual conditions on the following pages). If possible, infected children should be kept away from pregnant women, newborn babies or any person who is immunocompromised (eg, with cancer, HIV, organ transplant recipients) until they are no longer infectious. Advise parents or caregivers to: • observe their child frequently and seek urgent medical advice if they are worried or the child seems in distress • keep offering their child fluids to avoid dehydration. If their child refuses even small sips, they should seek medical advice urgently • wash and dry their hands frequently, especially before and after tending to a sick child • dress their child in light, loose-fitting clothing or pyjamas and encourage their child to rest in a half-darkened room • only administer pain relief, such as paracetamol, occasionally if needed to relieve a child’s discomfort (see Fever for more information) » Aspirin should not be given to children under 18 years (unless under medical advice) due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome (see Childhood Pain and Baby Teething for more information). • trim their child's fingernails short to discourage scratching which may lead to infection. Some diseases may require specific medicines prescribed by a doctor (see individual listings for details). Now you can complete your ENHANCE modules on your phone or tablet www.pharmacytoday.co.nz Page 25

  • Page 1 and 2: HEALTHCARE HANDBOOK incorporating t
  • Page 3 and 4: 2017-2018 HEALTHCARE HANDBOOK PUBLI
  • Page 5 and 6: Index Common Disorders Acne--------
  • Page 7 and 8: Asthma and COPD CONTINUING OTC EDUC
  • Page 9 and 10: Head and scalp • Condition of hai
  • Page 11 and 12: HELP KIDS BE THEMSELVES AGAIN NEW L
  • Page 14 and 15: NUROFEN ZAVANCE* IS ABSORBED UP TO
  • Page 16 and 17: Acne Acne is a common skin problem
  • Page 18 and 19: Allergies An allergy occurs when th
  • Page 20 and 21: Asthma and COPD Asthma New Zealand
  • Page 22 and 23: Baby Feeding Breastfeeding is best
  • Page 24 and 25: Bites and Stings Bites and stings c
  • Page 26 and 27: Bruises, Scars, Spider Veins Bruise
  • Page 30 and 31: Childhood Diseases and Immunisation
  • Page 32 and 33: Childhood Diseases and Immunisation
  • Page 34 and 35: Childhood Diseases and Immunisation
  • Page 36 and 37: Childhood Pain and Baby Teething Pa
  • Page 38 and 39: Colds A cold is a contagious viral
  • Page 40 and 41: Cold Sores Cold sores are fluid-fil
  • Page 42 and 43: Constipation Constipation is the te
  • Page 44 and 45: Contraception & Sexual Wellbeing Co
  • Page 46 and 47: Contraception: Emergency Emergency
  • Page 48 and 49: Coughs: Dry Coughs are called dry o
  • Page 50 and 51: Coughs: Productive Coughs are consi
  • Page 52 and 53: Cuts, Abrasions and Blisters This t
  • Page 54 and 55: Cystitis [Bladder Infection] Cystit
  • Page 56 and 57: Dandruff Dandruff is a common condi
  • Page 58 and 59: Dermatitis/Eczema Dermatitis is a g
  • Page 60 and 61: Diabetes Diabetes is a condition in
  • Page 62 and 63: Diarrhoea and Vomiting Diarrhoea an
  • Page 64 and 65: Dry Skin Dry skin is skin that lack
  • Page 66 and 67: Ear Conditions Our ears allow us to
  • Page 68 and 69: Eye Conditions Almost two-thirds of
  • Page 70 and 71: Eye Conditions (continued) Type Sym
  • Page 72 and 73: Eyes: Contact Lenses Contact lenses
  • Page 74 and 75: Fever What is fever Fever is define
  • Page 76 and 77: Foot Care Common foot problems incl
  • Page 78 and 79:

    Fungal Infections: Superficial Supe

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    Fungal Nail Infections (Onychomycos

  • Page 82 and 83:

    Gout Historically known as the “d

  • Page 84 and 85:

    Haemorrhoids Haemorrhoids (also cal

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    Hair Loss Alopecia is the medical t

  • Page 88 and 89:

    Hay Fever Hay fever (also called in

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    Hay Fever (continued) TREATMENT OPT

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    Headache Headaches are common and c

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    Head Lice Head lice (pediculosis ca

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    Heart Health Cardiovascular (CV) di

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    Indigestion, Heartburn and Gastriti

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    Influenza Influenza (flu) is a comm

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    Influenza (continued) TREATMENT OPT

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    Iron Deficiency Iron is an essentia

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    Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable

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    Menopause Menopause - the “change

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    Migraine Migraines are a type of se

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    Muscular Aches, Pains and Tightness

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    Nappy Rash Nappy rash is a red rash

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    Oral Health Oral health disorders i

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    Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is th

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    Osteoporosis Osteoporosis (meaning

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    Period Pain and Endometriosis Perio

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    Poisonings Any substance that has t

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    Pregnancy Tests and Supplements Hom

  • Page 128 and 129:

    Preventive Health There are certain

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    Probiotics and Prebiotics Probiotic

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    Psoriasis Psoriasis is a long-term

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    Scabies Scabies is a very contagiou

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    Shingles Shingles (herpes zoster) i

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    Sinus and Nasal Problems Sinuses ar

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    Sleep Problems and Snoring Sleep is

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    Smoking Cessation Almost 5000 New Z

  • Page 144 and 145:

    Sore Throat Sore throats are very c

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Strains and Sprains Sprains and str

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    Sun Care Sunburn Sunburn occurs fro

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    Sun Care: Eye Protection Protecting

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Sweating: Excessive (Hyperhidrosis)

  • Page 154 and 155:

    Toothache Toothache is the term use

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Travel Health (including Vaccinatio

  • Page 158 and 159:

    Travel Sickness Travel, or motion,

  • Page 160 and 161:

    Urinary Incontinence Urinary incont

  • Page 162 and 163:

    Urticaria (Hives) Urticaria refers

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    Vaginal Health The vagina is a clos

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Varicose Veins and Support Stocking

  • Page 168 and 169:

    Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Vi

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Warts Warts are benign (non-cancero

  • Page 172 and 173:

    Weight Loss Obesity has reached epi

  • Page 174 and 175:

    Worms Pinworms (Enterobius vermicul

  • Page 176 and 177:

    Wound Care Our skin acts as a barri

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    Wound Care (continued) Wound type M

  • Page 180 and 181:

    Glossary WHAT DOES THAT WORD MEAN?

  • Page 182 and 183:

    Chapter References (continued) Diar

  • Page 184 and 185:

    Chapter References (continued) Gord

  • Page 186 and 187:

    Significant learning opportunity: W

  • Page 188 and 189:

    PharmacyToday A part of your everyd

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    OTC Medicines: Interactions When se

  • Page 192 and 193:

    OTC Medicines: Interactions OTC Med

  • Page 194 and 195:

    OTC Medicines: Interactions OTC Med

  • Page 196 and 197:

    OTC Medicines: Interactions OTC Med

  • Page 198 and 199:

    OTC Medicines: Precautions OTC Medi

  • Page 200 and 201:

    OTC Medicines: Precautions OTC Medi

  • Page 202 and 203:

    OTC Medicines: Adverse Effects OTC

  • Page 204 and 205:

    Herbal Supplements: Interactions He

  • Page 206 and 207:

    Herbal Supplements: Interactions He

  • Page 208 and 209:

    Herbal Supplements: Interactions He

  • Page 210 and 211:

    Herbal Supplements: Interactions He

  • Page 212 and 213:

    Drugs in Sport Treating Athletes Me

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Drugs in Aviation AVIATION - PRECAU

  • Page 216 and 217:

    Drugs in Pregnancy Drug use in preg

  • Page 218 and 219:

    NZ Support Groups ADHD Association

  • Page 220 and 221:

    NZ Support Groups New Zealand AIDS

  • Page 222 and 223:

    HEAT or INFLAMMATION Unlike heat ru

  • Page 224 and 225:

    OTC Products Over-the-counter produ

  • Page 226 and 227:

    OTC Products Index Foot Care - Fung

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    »» Acne CRYSTADERM CREAM AFT PHAR

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    »» Childhood Pain and Baby Teethi

  • Page 232 and 233:

    »» Colds BONNINGTON’S IRISH MOS

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    CODRAL RELIEF MAX STRENGTH COLD & F

  • Page 236 and 237:

    OTRIVIN JUNIOR GLAXOSMITHKLINE CONS

  • Page 238 and 239:

    DULCOLAX SANOFI CONSUMER HEALTHCARE

  • Page 240 and 241:

    BENADRYL MUCUS RELIEF DOUBLE ACTION

  • Page 242 and 243:

    »» Dandruff COCO-SCALP AFT PHARMA

  • Page 244 and 245:

    EAR CLEAR WILSON CONSUMER PRODUCTS

  • Page 246 and 247:

    »» Foot Care - Fungal Infections

  • Page 248 and 249:

    TELFAST ORAL LIQUID SANOFI CONSUMER

  • Page 250 and 251:

    NUROFEN ZAVANCE RECKITT BENCKISER (

  • Page 252 and 253:

    MOOV HEAD LICE SOLUTION DOUGLAS PHA

  • Page 254 and 255:

    GAVISCON DUAL ACTION LIQUID RECKITT

  • Page 256 and 257:

    CODRAL COLD & FLU + COUGH JOHNSON &

  • Page 258 and 259:

    »» Irritable Bowel Syndrome GASTR

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    VOLTAREN EMULGEL GLAXOSMITHKLINE CO

  • Page 262 and 263:

    TURMERIC EXTRA STRENGTH GOOD HEALTH

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    PREGNOSIS EARLY PREGNANCY TEST DIP

  • Page 266 and 267:

    »» Sexual Wellbeing - Contracepti

  • Page 268 and 269:

    SUDAFED PE SINUS DAY + NIGHT RELIEF

  • Page 270 and 271:

    NICORETTE INHALATOR JOHNSON & JOHNS

  • Page 272 and 273:

    STREPSILS PLUS LOZENGES RECKITT BEN

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    TRAVACALM TRAVEL BAND WILSON CONSUM

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    CRYSTADERM CREAM AFT PHARMACEUTICAL

  • Page 278 and 279:

    An ENHANCED ELearning Experience As

  • Page 280 and 281:

    Product Index ANIME LUBRICANT 50ML-

  • Page 282 and 283:

    Manufacturer’s Index AFT Pharmace

  • Page 284:

    Topiramate Actavis Topiramate 25mg,

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