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822 R. Chitiyo, S. W.

822 R. Chitiyo, S. W. Harmon Table 2 Summary of constraints faced by lecturers in using technology for instructional purposes Barrier type Constraint Explanations given by the lecturers First order Second order 1. Lack of funding/ budgetary constraints 2. Poor Internet access and connectivity 3. Absence of appropriate staff development opportunities 4. Unreliable electricity supply 5. Large class and/or group sizes 6. Cultural and contextual relevance 7. Absence of ICT policy and technology integration framework 8. Lack of relevant/ appropriate expertise 1. Absence of: • physical infrastructure • resources 2. Poor/inconsistent availability of hardware and software 3. Failure to: • pay for technology & related expenses • replace outdated technology • acquire required software 1. Narrow bandwidth 2. Poor connectivity 3. Slow Internet speed 4. Slow dial-up 5. Limited access 6. Not enough computers connected to Internet 7. Internet down sometimes 1. Absence of appropriate staff development 2. Limited and poor quality training 3. Absence of platform for sharing ideas 4. Absence of higher education institution offering degree-level training in ET 1. Frequent electricity blackouts 2. Electricity load shading 1. Large class sizes, limited supplies of technology 2. Up to 60 students competing to use 3 or 4 computers 1. Absence of technological content relevant to own life and cultural experiences 2. Available software has Western/foreign biases 3. Software needs to be adapted to suit local curriculum 4. Majority of local schools lack technological tools 1. Absence of ICT policy and technology integration framework 2. Absence of policy on technology integration for students and teachers 1. Lack of technological knowledge, technology integration skills and appropriate technology awareness 2. Limited know-how, skills and knowledge in technology integration 123

An analysis of the integration of instructional technology 823 expertise (in the form of technological knowledge, integration skills and awareness) are first-order or external barriers. Put in other words, teachers have little or no control over these barriers. It is this study’s position that for any meaningful progress to be made in addressing second-order barriers like teachers’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards technology integration, there needs to be some meaningful resolution or removal of the range of first-order barriers, which, as illustrated below, tend to be interconnected, and therefore needing a holistic approach to solving or removing them. Interconnectedness of constraints to integration of IT by lecturers This discussion presents a web of constraints to the integration of IT by lecturers (see Fig. 1), which consists of what these researchers identify as the two main first-order barriers or constraints (lack of funding/budgetary constraints, and the absence of ICT policies and a technology integration framework), both of which are the cause of, or have an overriding effect on all the other constraints. The next three constraints relate to human resources issues, and the last three are technology related, and each of these six latter constraints is either related to, is a result of, or is the cause of another constraint. Lack of funding and budgetary constraints (characterized by absence of physical infrastructure, technological tools related resources) and the absence of ICT policies and a Lack of Funding/Budgetary Constraints Absence of ICT Policies & Technology Integration Framework Human Resources Issues Technology Issues Lack of Relevant/ Appropriate Expertise Poor Internet Access and Connectivity Absence of Appropriate Staff Development Lecturers’ Integration of IT Unreliable Electricity Supply Cultural and Contextual Relevance Large Class and/ Group Sizes Fig. 1 Model of constraints to IT integration by the lecturers 123

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