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828 R. Chitiyo, S. W.

828 R. Chitiyo, S. W. Harmon Cultural and contextual relevance of subject content and ET The adaptation and implementation of the preceding recommendations should create the ideal conditions for exploring the development and application of content for different subjects and ET in the Zimbabwean curriculum, with a view to improving their cultural and contextual relevance. Evaluation of ICT projects and programs Formative and summative evaluation of programs and projects should be carried out at all levels of implementation. This will enable the planners to determine the worth of these IT integration initiatives as well as how best they may be executed. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with those in other African countries as presented by Ngugi (2007). In summarizing a compilation of studies of eight African countries, excluding Zimbabwe, she notes: In short, even where national ICT policies have been approved by governments and where implementing bodies have been sanctioned to execute these policies, the reports reflect a dearth of policy governing either distance education or the use of ICT in tertiary education. Therefore, implementation is hampered by the absence of an overall technology plan, the lack of a clear acquisition and replacement plan and a dependence on short-term funding models. (p. ix). As made evident in this study, the same findings hold true in Zimbabwe. If African tertiary institutions ‘‘need to run very fast to avoid falling very far behind’’ in terms of ICT integration (Africa University Strategic Development Plan 2001–2008, 2002 p. 4), then these institutions need to stand up first, before they can walk, let alone run. To engage in the ICT race, (which seems to have become a marathon) African tertiary institutions will need to ensure adequate funding and institutional support to IT integration. They will need to show leadership in the formulation of policies and implementation frameworks that seriously address IT integration, as well as address issues relating to institutional support and constraints to technology integration identified in this study. Only then will the institutions be able to steadily walk, on their way to seriously engaging in the ICT marathon. References Africa University. (2002). Africa university strategic development plan 2001–2008. Mutare: Africa University. Altheide, D. L. (1987). Reflections: Ethnographic content analysis. Qualitative Sociology, 10(1), 65–77. Association of African Universities. (2000). Report on technical experts meeting on the use and application of information and communication technologies in higher education institutions in Africa. Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam. Cobb, T. (2006). Internet and literacy in the developing world: Delivering the teacher with the text. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(6), 627–645. 123

An analysis of the integration of instructional technology 829 Dwyer, D. C., Ringstaff, C., & Sandholtz, J. H. (1991). Changes in teachers’ beliefs and practices in technology-rich classrooms. Educational Leadership, 48(8), 45–52. Ertmer, P. A. (1999). Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(4), 47–61. Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39. Farrell, G., & Isaacs, S. (2007). Survey of ICT and education in Africa: A summary report, based on 53 country survey. Washington, DC: infoDev/World Bank. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integration technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(3), 223–252. Information and Communication Technologies in Zimbabwe Project. (2005). Zimbabwe e-readiness survey report. Harare: Ministry of Science and Technology Development and UNDF. Janesick, V. J. (1994). The dance of qualitative research design: Metaphor, methodolatry, and meaning. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 209–219). London: Sage. Kwaa Prah, K. (2003). Going native: Language of instruction for education, development and African imancipation. In B. Brock-Utne, Z. Desai, & M. Qorro (Eds.), Language of instruction in Tanzania and South Africa (LOITASA). Dar-es-Salaam: E&D Ltd. Lange, P. (2009). Africa—Fixed-line telecommunications and infrastructure statistics. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from Statistics-tables-only.html Lim, C. P. (2007). Effective integration of ICT in Singapore schools: Pedagogical and policy implications. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(1), 83–116. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Lubbe, S., Heaney, L., & Swank, K. (1997). Implementing information technology at the Border Technikon in South Africa. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45(3), 124–129. Machacha, W. (2004). National ICT policy formulation in Zimbabwe: The issues to consider. Paper presented to the Zimbabwe National ICT Policy Formulation Team, Harare. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Naidoo, V., & Schutte, C. (1999). Virtual institutions on the African continent. In G. M. Farrell (Ed.), The development of virtual education: A global perspective (pp. 89–124). Vancouver: The Commonwealth of Learning. Ngugi, C. (2007). ICTs and higher education in Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Centre of Educational Technology, University of Cape Town. Nwuke, K. (2003). Higher education, economic growth, and information technology in Africa: Some challenges and issues. In M. A. Beebe, K. M. Kouakou, B. Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, & M. Rao (Eds.), Africa dot edu: IT opportunities and higher education in Africa (pp. 17–42). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, B., & Lal, K. (2003). The internet diffusion in sub-Sahara Africa: A cross-country analysis. Maastricht: United Nations University. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Reddi, U. V. (1996). Common goals, different realities: Comparing issues in educational technology in the United States, Canada, and India. Educational Technology Research and Development, 44(1), 110–111. Rogers, J. (1998). The Internet: Emerging technologies in two West African countries. Educational Technology Research and Development, 46(3), 103–109. Saleh, H. K. (2008). Computer self-efficacy of university faculty in Lebanon. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(2), 229–240. Schiffman, S. S. (1995). Instructional systems design: Five views of the field. In G. J. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (pp. 131–144). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Steiner, R., Tirivayi, N., Jensen, M., & Gakio, K. (2004) Africa tertiary institution connectivity survey report. World Bank Institute. Retrieved May 3, 2005 from InternetAfrica/docs/ATICS2004Report.pdf Uys, P. M., Nleya, P., & Molelu, G. B. (2004). Technological innovation and management strategies for higher education in Africa: Harmonizing reality and idealism. Education Media International, 41(1), 67–80. White, C. (1999). It’s not just another new thing: Technology as a transformative innovation for social studies teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 7(1), 3–12. 123

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