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814 R. Chitiyo, S. W.

814 R. Chitiyo, S. W. Harmon infrastructure), lack of specific technological, pedagogical and class management skills (content, capacity building), institutional barriers (leadership and policy framework formulation), teacher attitudes and beliefs towards technology, and the pressures of assessment emerge distinctly as barriers only in the context where the first three main barriers have been addressed to some reasonable extent. For example, without a certain level of ready access to technological tools and resources, and the teacher training that goes with it, teachers do not have the tools to significantly influence their attitudes and beliefs towards technology, or to affect the way they assess their student’s work. In a study on effective integration of ICT in Singapore, Lim (2007) highlights the constraints of time and lack of knowledge and experience. The same study also discusses the need for necessary conditions like classroom management and orienting activities, as well as the need for sufficient conditions like supporting (scaffolding) activities and supporting school policies for effective technology integration. Although lack of resources is not a major barrier in Lim’s (2007) study, the constraints of time and lack of knowledge and experience, as well as the need for classroom management skills and supporting school policies also emerge as barriers to technology integration. Saleh (2008) notes that to enhance integration of technology at a university in Lebanon, ‘‘leaders will have to consider the importance of providing increased administrative support, including an adequate budget, technology plan, departmental leadership, and specific technology resources related to each disciplinary area and campus’’ (p. 238). Cobb (2006) writing from an international perspective, gives a comprehensive summary of some of the barriers to ICT integration in Africa as follows: Many of the IT-based learning projects I reviewed reported on some level of difficulty resulting from Africa’s daunting lack of infrastructure (shortage of telephone lines, frequent power outages, etc.). Western commentators complain that African (particularly sub-Saharan) governments often have no IT development policy and tend to grant monopolies to Internet service providers (ISPs) who keep prices artificially high, blocking broad access. African commentators complain that many ICT-based projects require proprietary software that, although donated, arrives out of date and requiring almost immediate update, and must be followed by new hardware that can run the software, which of course has not been budgeted. More broadly, these critics also note that many IT-based education projects, including World Bank AVU, are developed in a top–down process with learning materials designed elsewhere …’’ (p. 629). Writing about the Internet as an emerging technology in two West African countries, Rogers (1998) observes, ‘‘There is little infrastructure, little public monies, little interest from corporations (and to some extent little foreign aid), and even fewer computers and related hardware’’ (p. 108). However, this study agrees with Reddi’s (1996) comments on common goals and different realities in the integration of technology, ‘‘Successful use of communication technology for education requires the optimal deployment of resources, comprising policy, educational and communication structures, technology, and the matching of these to specific learning objectives, content requirements, and societal needs’’ (p. 110). An approach to instructional technology integration In its proposal for determining what it refers to as an institution’s ICT maturity (the effectiveness of a higher education institution to identify its ICT profile, to define its 123

An analysis of the integration of instructional technology 815 objectives for integrating ICT in teaching and learning and to plan for them accordingly), the Association of African Universities (2000) suggests the use of ‘‘stages of technology development’’ (p. 3)—which are the Entry, Adoption, Adaptation, Appropriation and the Invention stage. This widely used model of technology integration, (Dwyer et al. 1991) identifies the Entry phase as when the computers and related technologies are installed and teachers start using the technology. In the second phase of the model, Adoption, the technology is used to support traditional text-based instruction using drill-and-practice or word-processing applications. During the third phase, Adaptation, the technology has been integrated into the teaching and learning. The Appropriation stage sees changes hinged on the teachers’ mastery of technological skills. Invention is the final phase in the model; students will have intensive computer access and students create their own learning. (Dwyer et al. 1991). Methodology Since our research questions focus on preparation of teachers by tertiary institutions, three criteria or attributes were considered in the selection of sites. First, the teacher education program had to be at a university. Second, the program was supposed to be preparing preservice teachers and lastly, it was supposed to be preparing secondary school teachers. Using these criteria, all the institutions offering such programs, and which happen to be located in three different provinces of Zimbabwe, were selected. They totaled three in number. All the 26 lecturers in the faculties (colleges) of education at these three institutions were potential participants in the study. Lecturers who offered to participate had to be currently teaching at least one course in the faculty (college), and had to sign a consent form confirming their willingness to voluntarily take part in the study, and agree to being interviewed and to being tape-recorded. Based on these criteria, 21 lecturers at these three institutions participated in the study. Three commonly used data collection methods in qualitative research—interviews, analysis of documents and questionnaires—were used. Semi-structured interviews, which had a mix of structured and less structured questions were administered, and the interviews were tape recorded. Questionnaires were used for collecting data of a technical nature. To that effect, the researchers designed the Computer Technology Proficiency and Competency Questionnaire (CTPCQ), made up of likert-type questions. The CTPCQ sought to determine the lecturers’ proficiency in some basic and common computer tasks in their day-to-day teaching and to find out their competencies in some common technology integration processes. The third method of data collection was analysis of documents. The documents that were collected included institutional strategic development plans, university catalogues and course outlines. Data collected from documents was also used for triangulating data collected from interviews and questionnaires. Data analysis The essence of inductive analysis is that categories, themes, and patterns emerge from the data collected during open-ended observations, interviews, and examination of artifacts (Janesick 1994; Patton 1990). ‘‘Although categories and ‘variables’ initially guide the 123

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