First National Documents on Spatial Planning in Albania

akptsharedocs

Summary of the first 3 National Documents on Spatial Planning for the Republic of Albania:
1. The General National Spatial Plan
2. The Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan for the Coast
3. The Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan for the Tirana-Durrës Region

FIRST NATIONAL DOCUMENTS

ON SPATIAL PLANNING

The New Urban Agenda


Head of Process

Eglantina Gjermenti

Minister of Urban Development

Coordinators

Adelina Greca

Nertil Jole

ong>Nationalong> Spatial Plan:

Team Leader:

Anisa Qorri

Team:

Albana Koçollari, Deni Klosi, Ditijon Baboçi, Ledio Allkja, Eleana Beruka,

Ismail Broli, Mirzeta Kashnica, Shpendi Balilaj, Bledi Dimo

Cross-sectorial Integrated Plan for the Coast:

Team Leader:

Albana Koçollari

Team:

Anisa Qorri, Ledio Allkja, Deni Klosi, Ditijon Baboçi, Bledi Dimo,

Shpendi Balilaj, Ernest Shtupani

Cross-sectorial Integrated Plan for the economic area Tirane - Durres:

Team Leader:

Deni Klosi, Ledio Allkja

Team:

Albana Koçollari, Doris Alimerko, Eduart Lika, Mikel Tanini

Special acknowledgments for their contribution

Angelo d’Urso

Hans-Juergen Cassens

Wilhelm Schulte

Jan Drews


Contributors

Ministry of Urban Development

Ministry of Economic Development, Trade and Entrepreneurship

Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure

Ministry of Energy and Industry

Minister of Agriculture, Rural Development and Water Resources

Ministry of Environment

Ministry of Culture

Ministry of Internal Affairs

Ministry of Justice

Faculty of Civil Engineering

Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism

Faculty of Geology and Mining

Agriculture University of Tirana

Epoka University

Polis University

European University of Tirana

Albanian Tourism Association

Confindustria Albania

Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Construction Consultancy institute

Embassy of the Kingdom of Netherlands

Netherland Enterprise Agency

PBL Nettherlands Environmental Assesment Agency

GIZ

TUDelft

CoPlan/PLGP

IABR

Iabr/UP

PLGP USAID

51N4E

.FABRIC

IC Consulenten

Rally Albania

Property Evaluation Association

Meine Pieter va Dijk

Gianni Brizzi

Luc-Emile Bouche-Florin

Foteini Stefani

Cezar Morar

Olov Schult

...........

Eduart Cani

Merita Meksi

Frida Pashako

Valbona Koçi

Elios Kovaçi

Alket Islami

Genc Veizaj

Mirela Koçollari

Edvin Kasimati

Florian Hasko

Ditjon Baboçi

Julian Papaproko

Aldo Merkoçi

Julian Bejko


© fation plaku


© rilind hoxha


CONTENTS

1. ong>Nationalong> Spatial Plan .............................................................................................

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.10

1.11

Methodology ........................................................................................................

NSP strategic objectives ......................................................................................

Policies ................................................................................................................

Vision ...................................................................................................................

Connective corridors ...........................................................................................

Main findings and guidelines on the territorial systems ..........................................

Urban System ......................................................................................................

Infrastructure System ..........................................................................................

Natural System .....................................................................................................

Water System ......................................................................................................

Agricultural System ..............................................................................................

2. Cross-sectoral Integrated Plan for the Coast .................................................

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

Goals ....................................................................................................................

Vision ...................................................................................................................

Strategic guidelines ..............................................................................................

Sectoral policies ...................................................................................................

The strategy of integrated coastal plan .................................................................

Important projects ...............................................................................................

3. Cross-sectoral Integrated Plan for the economic area Tirane – Durres ..

3.1 Goals ....................................................................................................................

3.2 Vision ...................................................................................................................

3.3 Strategic objectives .............................................................................................

3.3.1 Sustainable economic development .............................................................

3.3.2 Improving the quality of life in urban / rural areas ..........................................

3.3.3 Improvement of infrastructure, transport and mobility in the region ..............

3.3.4 Protection and improvement of the natural environmental quality ..................

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Fig.1

Vision Map


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1.

ong>Nationalong> Spatial Plan

This plan was drafted with the valuable contribution of a large number of experts

from various fields of economic, social, and environmental developmen, specialists,

technicians, employees of state administration, professors and representatives

from various fields of academia, members of non-profit organizations, business

representatives, local government representatives, as well as various citizens, that with

the active participation in a number of consultative meetings contributed to the drafting

of the vision for the development of Albania in the next 15 years. The plan is the

result of the joint and tireless work of specialists of the ong>Nationalong> Territorial Planning

Agency (NTPA) and the Ministry of Urban Development (MUD), who for about two

years contributed to finalize the document, which is the first of its kind for our country

that brings a framework of integrated territorial development incurred to date and sets

out a long-term development and quality model for Albania in 2030.

The ong>Nationalong> Spatial Plan (NSP) provides the strategic reference framework

for sustainable territorial development for the next 15 years, in order to ensure

balanced economic and social national development, responsible management of

natural resources, environmental protection, all while ensuring the rational land

use. The NSP is introduced not only as fulfillment of a legal obligation, but also as a

prerequisite to achieveing the governmental program objectives to enhance citizens’

welfare and national economic growth by reducing inequalities, strengthening the

strategic partnership with neighboring countries and implementation of policies

that foster competitiveness of economic sectors, thus ensuring integration in the

European Union.

NSP Albania 2030 is the highest-level instrument of territorial planning in Albania,

which addresses planning issues in an integrated manner, considering the Albanian

territory as a whole. Based on its principles, objectives and specifications, details

will be provided in terms of the lower hierarchy plans, national sectoral plans (NSP),

detailed plans for areas of national importance (DPANI), regional development plans

(RDP), sectoral plans at the regional level (SPRL), local general plans (LGP) and any

other territorial planning instrument stemming from the development needs.

This document prepares the ground for the harmonization of sectorial and crosssectoral

policies, which have an impact or associated effects on the territory,

structures and balances urban and rural developments, and provides a reliable

climate for long term investments.

The NSP is presented at a key moment for the territorial reorganization of Albania

as an instrument supporting and enabling the qualitative implementation of the

administrative territorial reform. It constitutes a key platform for the new regions


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and municipalities in the drafting of their regional and local plans.

The need for the NSP formulation is further highlighted within the framework of

coordination for successful implementation of the objectives of the Government of

the Republic of Albania 1 , such as:

Increase of the EU fund absorbing capacity and implementation of regional

development initiatives as a vital step toward integration;

Strategic link with the neighbors as the road to national economic recovery,

guaranteeing the efficiency of major infrastructure and economic regional

investments and the representation of Albania as a model and peace and stability

factor in the region;

Implementation of an economic, territorial and governing model at multiple

levels, which reduces disparities ensures diversity and economic independence in

a sustainable manner, ensures the self-recovery capacity of the Albanian economy,

promotes the economy of knowledge and innovation, and converges with the

European economy, while encouraging the Albanian economy toward progress;

Strengthening of sectors to increase GDP and employment in becoming key to

sustainability, adaptive and self-recovery capacity and the presentation of Albania

as an important link within the regional and international development network.

Sectors such as energy, agriculture, tourism, some extracting and processing

industries, should not compete among themselves for resources, but should be

complementary, enabling the ecosystem to provide services in a sustainable manner

and contribute to the enhancement of knowledge and innovation as an engine of the

future;

Protection of natural resources in function of the independence of sectors, and

economic and social independence of the whole territory.

1.1 Methodology

The methodology for drafting the NSP 2030 is based on three key and complementary

steps:

1. The metabolic analysis of the territory as a model applied for the identification

and analysis of the flows of materials and energy within specific territories. This

model provides the researchers with a framework through which to explore the

interactions of natural and human systems in specific regions. 2

2. Formulation of the Vision Statement.

3. Strategic Planning, as a technique applied in cities or towns, metropolitan areas,

and regions, integrates social, economic, financial, territorial, environmental,

governance, institutional and legal issues into a single framework. It establishes

the vision-based development and enables objectives, programs and action plans

for implementation. It has no strict regulatory nature. It sets up modalities to

address challenges, avoid barriers and effectively use opportunities and resources.

It is realized through participation.

The territorial metabolic analysis process was based on territorial inspection through

i) the approved sectorial strategies and those strategies under approval of central

institutions and ministries ii) inter-ministerial meetings, seminars with local and

foreign experts, associated with field visits, iii) data collection and analysis on flows

with the highest impact on territory development: water, food, energy and tourism.

1 According to the Governmental Program “Albania of next generation”, 2013-2017.

2 A broader definition is included in the DCM no. 671, dated 29.7.2015 “On approval of the Regulation

on Territorial Planning”, article 2, paragraph 19.


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The NSP objectives are

based on the objectives of

sustainable planning of

the key European planning

documents, such as the

European Territorial Agenda

2020, Strategy Evropa 2020,

Territorial Vision of Europe

2050, etc.

The formulation of the Vision Statement was an outcome of a process supported by

experts of the priority sectors of national growth attached to the central institutions

and representatives of non-profit associations and organizations 3 . The Vision

formulation followed the methodology and process described by ESPON 4 on drafting

the Territorial Vision (TEVI) Europe 2050. The working group pursued two methods

to prepare the vision: i) based on scientific facts and information; ii) based on

values and guided by policies. Both methods were implemented independently, but

they fed into each other until the final result. This method enables a vision based

on the existing and planned policies, including their challenges, and underlines the

planning dimension as a process. The formulated vision maintains a strategic, longterm,

comprehensive, and coherent character.

The strategic planning was focused on the objectives and the policies of the plan.

The territorial strategic proposals were made based on five primary systems

organized into corridors, zones and centers. The underlying elements considered in

these proposals are as follows:

ʧ potential for economic and multidimensional development determined by the

location, size, accessibility, and connectivity;

ʧ identifying local character conditioned by specific geographical, natural,

historical, cultural, traditional features of economic, urban, and social development;

ʧ security measures for natural disasters and climate changes.

1.2 NSP strategic objectives

I. Multi-dimensional integration in the European context;

II. Creating and enhancing a strong and competitive economic position of Albania

in the Balkans and Mediterranean regions;

III. Physical and territorial integrity of the historical, cultural, natural, and urban

landscape throughout the Albanian territory;

IV. Increase and improvement of quality of life for people, by promoting economic

growth, removing spatial inequalities, access barriers to economy, infrastructure,

and knowledge;

V. Promotion of the “right to the city”;

VI. Preparing the ground for regional development.

1.3 Policies

Development of national infrastructure connecting Albania with pan-European

transport corridors;

Development of Albania as an interconnecting infrastructure and energy center

for the Balkans;

Smart growth of the urban system through polycentric, densifying, and

comprehensive development;

Promotion and access to natural areas and landscape features. Rational

3 For further information, see Annex 1 on the participation process.

4 ESPON (European Spatial Planning Observation) is a EU program with its initial objective of

taking concrete steps toward ESDP (European Spatial Development Perspective) implementation,

especially to improve knowledge, research and information on the territorial development and to

be prepared for the EU territory enlargement. Currently, the mission of ESPON 2020 is to continue

work for the consolidation of the Network of European Territorial Observatory, and strengthen political

provision and use of credible, regular and comparative data.


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management of natural resources and cultural heritage, ensuring the preservation

of cultural identity and diversity, while facing growth and globalization. At the same

time, it makes them active and instrumental to the domestic economic growth by

reactivating them as assets, improving and increasing adequate access to them;

Development of multimodal and environmentally friendly transport system.

Promotion of integrated transport and new concepts of environmentally friendly

mobility. This transport supports the polycentric territorial development in achieving

a gradual progress that ensures equal access to infrastructure and economy;

Development of diversified energy infrastructure towards the renewable energy;

Integrated planning and development of distribution and connection flows of

communication, transport, food, and energy that provides a cohesive, efficient, and

quality development of the above mentioned corridors;

Hierarchical organization, specialization, and operational grouping of urban

centers;

Promotion of the “right to the city” for informal areas.

Albania & the Region

Aiming at the realization

of the spatial integration

and the balanced

distribution of flows

within the territory,

planning the connective

and distributive corridors,

and the hierarchy of the

urban centers, are at the

core of the NSP.

1.4 Vision Statement

This vision is based on particular assumptions and preconditions as follows:

urban population will increase in the centers of each level of the polycentric

network;

a stable, inherent political spirit will be created, contributing to peace and

integration in the Balkans;

development of strategies and adoption of concrete measures to deal with the

effects of climate change, including the present natural civil emergencies, will be a

priority of the governmental program;

sound institutional cooperation;

intensified decentralization of governance and its democratization;

sectoral and cross-sectoral service standards will be established, and serious

work will be done towards their achievement;

a free movement orientation policy will be outlined through strategic investments

and opening of new jobs, aiming at lowering the age dependency coefficient;

serious capacity building investments will be made to increase the EU funds

attraction ability;

a strong foundation and operational basis of information will be established,

without which the programming links of the vision implementation cannot function;

ownership of this vision will be guaranteed by the government, but also by

civil groups and political forces, as a vision of the future of the Albanians, far from

divisions and political differences.

Albania, a center integrated in the European infrastructure and economic system,

a diverse and competitive economy within the Balkans area, a state aiming at

equality in access, infrastructure, economy, and knowledge. Assuring the

protection of natural, historical, and cultural heritage with the aim of becoming

an authentic destination.

Development of the connecting and distributing corridors network of the country

is evaluated according to three levels of integration; European connection and

integration, strengthening of regional ties within the Balkans and the Mediterranean,

as well as interconnection and penetrability of the national territory. The aim is


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Fig.2

Vision statement schemes

to increase the accessibility from border regions and beyond, by ensuring that

communications and exchange in urban centers of national importance and access

will be fast, reliable, and straightforward.

1.5 Connective corridors

In the European context, the geographic position of Albania favors the deployment

of short connective roads crossing Europe, connecting member states on the edges

of the continent, but also to Asia and North Africa. The famous, ancient road,

Egnatia, and the harbors established at the Albanian coast since antiquity are

early indicators of this. The materialization of the European “central axis” roads

connecting Northern Europe and Southern European countries or countries of the

Gulf, is considered very important

Albania has benefited little from this advantageous position based on the fact that

the linking corridors of member countries have been built by bypassing Albania.

The political context and the long national isolation have been the main factors

preventing the integration in the core network of pan-European corridors, but, even

25 years after the political and economic liberalization, the pace to become part of

this network has been slow. Strategic plans that provide a long-term development

vision have lacked, to make this geographical factor active, positive for the country’s

development and integration into Europe. Now Albania is facing the concrete picture

of corridors of European Union countries, TEN-T. These pan-European corridors aim

at developing a “sound and competitive economy” of member states. As stated in

the report of the European Commission, for Central Network of corridors, 2013,

...these pan-European corridors are the basis of modal integration, interoperability,

coordinated development, and infrastructure management.

The strategy for the construction of these corridors will allow investments and

infrastructure works to be harmonic, to support efficient, innovative services and

multimodal transport, including railway services for medium and long distance.

1.6 Main findings & guidelines on the territorial systems

The spatial and territorial structure of Albania is strongly impacted by the

focus of investments and the existing infrastructure, which have influenced the

establishment and concentration of work places and settlements.

The employment structure in various of sectors has changed during the last 25

years;

ʧ ong>Firstong>ly, as a result of the changes of the economic and political model, from a

society with centralized economy and based on state-owned property to a model

based on free trade and private property;

ʧ Secondly, the employment structure has also changed due to investments that

are influenced by the proximity and quality of the connective and communication

infrastructure, auxiliary services or qualifications, and the intellectual potential of

employable people provided by the specific cities or towns.

The territory is influenced by the movement of population from rural and

suburban areas to urbanized centers in the western lowland of the country and

by a high concentration of population in the central region, mainly in the Tiranë

– Durrës area. The result of these demographic, social, and economic trends has

led to a monocentric development of the country, high inequality of the economic


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Fig.3

Spatial territorial

development


and social development, as well as urban sprawl to the detriment of agricultural

lands and free natural zones. The rapid urbanization is concurrently associated

with a high concentration of businesses and population, reaching to some cities

and regions such as Tiranë – Durrës, the adequate density and concentration for

satisfactory economic performance.

This mode of development realized under the “laissez-faire” model has caused

high pressure to the demand for housing in rapidly urbanized areas, inadequacy

of the infrastructure for social, educational, and health services, as well as an

increase of the demand for transport. Regarding the spatial structure, the NSP

supports the polycentric, comprehensive, and densifying territory development

for the purpose of smart growth, reduction of economic and social inequalities,

with the aim of balanced spatial development. NSP emphasizes the main role of

the Tiranë – Durrës economic pole for the economic growth it provides at national

level. To ensure a sustainable development of its economic performance, this region

should be developed through balanced consolidating, renewing, conservating, and

re-developmeing interventions.

NSP proposes the empowerment of the urban system with other important national

centers regarding the potentials they offer for a balanced territorial development,

and the establishment of connective and communication infrastructure, human

resources, the tradition of historical and cultural development such as Shkodër,

Lezhë, Vlorë, Fier, Sarandë, Gjirokastër, Elbasan, Berat, Korçë, Pogradec, along with

the surrounding urban centers, to be economically developed at comparative levels

with Tiranë - Durrës. Their coordinated development would balance the monocentric

attraction to the central region of the country.

The space of national coastal region is recognized by the NSP as the a region

of national importance in terms of the sustainable development it should provide,

and the primary role it has in the tourism, energy, agriculture, and infrastructure

sectors. In this region, conservation-oriented interventions should be developed for

the areas of historical, cultural, and environmental heritage importance, as well as

consolidating interventions for the areas formed by the urban morphology with

a potential of re-development for the newly urbanized areas, but without proper

quality and densification of the existing urban areas within their accommodation

capacity, without affecting the characteristic features of the natural and historical

landscape.

Demands for employment growth and development of economic sectors towards

a territory non-consuming or non-degrading economy, suggest an approach of

integration policies that promote complementary cooperation of the sectoral,

agricultural, touristic, energy sectors, and promotion for novelty and their

cooperation and specialization, associated with an increase and improvement of

the employment access to the urban centers of the rural areas towards the nearest

urban centers.

While the regional development pace is accelerated, new demands will arise

for housing, services, spaces for allocation or expansion of economic sectors,

infrastructure and beyond. NSP proposes that the development of spatial-territorial

unit should be supported by the growth of the national transport network,

which provides improved service of public transport and strengthens access

and penetrability across the national territory. This network should provide the

international link of the country via the port cities to the neighboring countries of

the Balkans region and beyond to the Mediterranean and Europe.

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18

Fig.4

Urban System

hierarchy of urban centers

& spatial interconnection of

functional areas


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The policy guiding the

proposed urban system

structure is the establishment

and strengthening of dynamic,

attractive, and competitive

cities in urbanized regions.

1.7 Urban System

In order to reduce the inherited inequality, the ong>Nationalong> Plan for the urban system

proposes:

Polycentric spatial development and a new urban-rural relationship;

Control of the physical expansion of cities and urbanized areas, thus promoting

densification instead of urban distribution;

Better access to multimodal infrastructure, which is not only more effective but

also more environmental friendly;

Mixed and complementary functions;

Rational use and management of the urban ecosystem, in particular of water,

energy, and waste;

Conservation and development of natural assets and historical cultural heritage

in the sense of the improvement and involvement of these assets in the urban life.

The plan introduces the hierarchy of centers and their profiling in accommodating

the appropriate economic sectors by making use of the existing and proposed

potentials. The plan introduces:

a. 6 primary economic poles, otherwise referred to as primary economic

functional zones added to the economic pole of Tiranë - Durrës;

b. 12 primary urban centers;

c. 9 secondary urban centers;

d. 39 tertiary urban centers;

e. 61 specialized local centers.

This hierarchy orients the investments of central, local government and projects in

harmony with the new demands of urban development to cover 100% the primary

services for citizens, thus guaranteeing the quality of urban life.

The vitality of cities goes toward intensification of the relations with cities sharing

similar economic growth, but also with the surrounding areas and beyond; real-time

response to the economic growth trends, innovation, and demographic changes.

The attractive cities are expected to be developed in two main aspects:

ʧ ong>Firstong>ly, by investing in the improvement of urban life quality through the

primary services of education, health, recreation, culture, art, public infrastructure,

environmental quality, air, security, etc. All these represent key components in

attracting the adequate population to live and work therein, a population which

becomes the critical mass that is the prerequisite for the development of a

sustainable market, thus preparing the grounds for the development of different

economic sectors.

ʧ Secondly, by investing in their existing urban and natural assets. Reassessing the

unique features constituting their territory, and as a result attractive not only to the

tourism sector, but also to other economic sectors.

Competitiveness promotes the development of cities and characteristic economic

sectors therein. Primary centers will intensify the infrastructure of primary services

to health and education, adequate to meet the demands of urban centers within the

45-minute travel of their service radius. Investments in infrastructure to increase

the population access from the surrounding areas to the primary center. Specialized

centers or otherwise referred to, as talented cities, will be developed in harmony

with their potentials, in order to become attractive cities where to live and work.


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Fig.5

Infrastructure System

transportation


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Regarding the main urban

centers, an assessment should

be made to transform them

into Key Cities, ong>Nationalong>

Entry-Exit Gates. Cities

where not only national

roads of primary importance

connecting the European

Corridors are intersected,

but also the provision for the

transport and exchange of

alternative goods via the rail

and water transport.

1.8 Infrastructure System

The importance of the infrastructure system for the accomplishment of the NSP

2030 vision, Albania as energy “hub” for the region and a connecting hub for

Southeastern Europe, the spatial integration of the country, and the balanced

distribution of flows within the territory depends on the further capacity development

of the transport of people, goods, energy, and information, as well as improvements

in terms of time efficiency, cost reduction, and distance shortening.

Physical infrastructure, public transport, energy, and communication are of special

importance to the NSP, as they directly affect the establishment, expansion, and time

relevance of a particular development. Other economic and social infrastructure

such as water-sanitation supply system, treatment of wastewater, transport,

disposal and treatment of waste, schools, hospitals are required to be established in

accordance to the concentration of population and fulfillment of the requirements

for the adequate achievement of a balanced spatial development of the country.

Regionalized waste management will be treated with priority, focusing on the

efficient use, low-cost, and competitive management, in order to bring developed

sectors of the processing industry in the country.

Transport

ʧ Drafting of joint cross-border projects with focus on the increase of interconnection

and exchanges through the improvement of transport infrastructure.

ʧ As for all secondary centers, a transport network enabling the fast connection of

those centers to the primary urban center, which is the center providing specialized

and more advanced public services, is foreseen.

ʧ Unification of the transport corridors with the energy corridors not only for the

corridors in the plan to be drafted, but also the assessment of existing ones.

ʧ Forecasting national roads of historical and touristic character, e.g. revitalization

of the historical road Via Egnatia as a tourist road, where the cooperation with

historians at this point is essential.

ʧ Reduction of the emission of pollutants (Co2) until 2030 through investments

in technology, innovation and capacity development (the target of Europe for 2030

is the reduction of emissions up to 60% for the transport in general). Promotion of

the use of new environment-friendly technologies in transport, as well as the use

of electricity, hydrogen, and hybrid technologies for the long-distance transport of

goods.

ʧ Promotion of public inter-city transport and alternative transport via “soft”

infrastructure”, bikeway and pedestrian path.

Road Transport

The NSP sets as a strategic priority the implementation and finalization of the

strategic projects connecting Albania to Europe:

Adriatic- Ionian Highway - Muriqan, Shkodër - Gjirokastër, Kakavije.

Northern-southern highway (connection between Montenegro and Greece, from

Hani i Hotit in Shkodër and Gjirokastër through the border point of Kakavije, with

a length of 405 km);

Landscape coastal road (touristic coastal road of a low environmental impact,

connecting the coastal localities : Velipojë - Shëngjin, Shëngjin - Patok, Patok -

Durrës, Durrës - Divjakë, Divjakë - Seman, Seman - Vlorë, Vlorë - Dhërmi, Dhërmi


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Fig.6

Energetics - Industry

infrastructure system


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- Sarandë, Sarandë - Butrint) 5

Corridor VIII as a primary road for the transport of goods (shortest connection

of the Mediterranean Sea with the Black Sea; Durrës Varna/Durrës - Stamboll) and

Via Egnatia as a historical road of tourist importance.

Central Axis (Elbasan - Berat - Gjirokastër);

Rruga e Arbërit (Arbri Road) (Tiranë - Dibër - Maqedoni) as a branch of Corridor

VIII

Rruga e Kombit (Nation’s Road) (Durrës - Kukës - Pristina - Nish) as one of the

corridors with the highest impact on the region due to the connection to Kosovo

(Pristina to corridor X).

NSP Rail Transport proposes

ʧ Restruction of the railway system of the national lines connecting Albania to

Macedonia and Montenegro and the whole network of the Balkans and Europe.

Montenegro – Shkodër –Vlorë, Durrës – Elbasan – Pogradec, connection to

Macedonia – Korçë. For the territory near Ohrid lake, the shifting of the railway

trajectory inside the territory, in an attempt to not harm the unique values of Ohrid

Lake, a zone which aims to be part of the Unesco heritage, is suggested;

ʧ Construction of railway lines to support the inter-city movement for long distances

and cross-border movement;

ʧ Establishment of multimodal systems;

ʧ Connection of the airports to the railway transport;

ʧ Connection of the rail lines to the main harbors.

Air and Maritime Transport

ʧ Strengthening of the existing harbor structures, harbors of national and regional

importance, with the intention of enhancing their processing and exporting of goods

capacities, and transport of passengers at a competing level within the Balkans and

Mediterranean regions. Increase of the number of touristic marines, in compliance

with the physical capacity of the Albanian coast, for the purpose of the development

of an elite coastal tourism sector, which is environmental friendly and in harmony

with the physical territorial features of the natural landscape of our coast.

ʧ Development of 4 main harbors for Albania, as starting points of maritime

highways:

ʧ Harbor of Durrës (mixed functions: touristic, passengers, goods and fishing,

Porto Romano-energy-related harbor);

ʧ Vlora Harbor (mixed functions: touristic, passengers, goods and fishing.

Petrolifera energy-related harbor);

ʧ Harbor of Shëngjin (mixed functions: touristic, passengers and fishing);

ʧ Harbor of Sarandë (mixed functions: touristic, passengers and fishing).

Energy corridors

The energy and gas distribution network, in the future, in Albania is expected to be

integrated with the transport corridors, crossing the whole country.

The main priorities in this framework are:

Improvement of the energy supply all over the western region, the northeastern,

5 According to the report of the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure on infrastructure priority

projects for the year 2014.


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Fig.7

Natural System


25

Fig.8

Natural System

Diagrams

A. Emerald network

B. Proposed national parks

C. Natural corridors

A )

and the southeastern farthest regions of the country, thus increasing with a larger

access to the national network, e.g. ensuring progress in the national connecting

network proposed by the transmission lines toward Kosovo and Macedonia.

Strengthening the energy supply networks within the existing and proposed

harbors.

Strengthening the energy supply network supporting special employment

groups in relation to the demands in processing industrial areas, with special focus

on the areas foreseen as free economic zones.

A better integration between the electricity network in Southern Albania and

Southeastern Albania.

B )

Strategic Projects

TAP – completion of the Trans Adriatic Pipeline Project;

IAP – Ionian Adriatic Pipeline. It will cross the western part of Albania, from Fier

to Shkodër, towards Montenegro with two branches in Ulqin and Podgoricë. Gas

infrastructure;

IAP-Kosovo. IAP is branched off in the region of Shkodër - Lezhë, to supply

Kosovo through Kukës, building the Western Ring of the Balkans. (Western Balkan

Ring - WBR);

The polycentric development of Albania suggests the gasification for the six main

economic national poles, a strategic project, which has started to be implemented

with the Drafting of the Gas Masterplan, initiated by the Ministry of Energy and

Industry.

1.9 Natural System

The land usage as a result of growth and development simultaneously, causes the

constant loss of vacant spaces along with their functions, in support of the natural

ecosystems and climate protection, recreation, and their economic capacity functions

for forestry and agriculture, production of renewable energy, and protection of

the underground sources of the relevant areas. Within the ong>Nationalong> Spatial Plan,

the environment is not a surface area protected by human activity, but an asset

safeguarded for the people and the sustainable economic development.

C )

The sustainable development of the natural system is an NSP major objective.

This objective aims to be achieved through the following policies:

ʧ Increase of national responsibility for the present and future generations,

combining the concepts of sustainability and proper administration of natural

assets;

ʧ Protection and enlargement of the protected natural areas; creation of a

sustainable and communicative environmental system;

ʧ Enhancement of the environment’s role in the national economic growth;

integration of the natural system in the economic value of development sectors;

ʧ Enhancement of the environment’s role in the quality of urban life through the

promotion and creation of proper access to the natural areas.

Furthermore, a proposal is made for the Emerald network to be added to the protected

areas network. As a whole, it represents a network where ecosystems, habitats,

types, landscapes and other natural features of pan-European importance will be


26

Fig.9

Water System


27

The NSP approach to this

system is manifested

through two concepts:

PROMOTION & ACCESS

In this framework, the

Strategic Projects proposed

by the NSP is the extension

of the three national parks

in the national network of

protected areas:

Park of Alps

Park of Buna

Park of Vjosa

preserved in accordance to the law requirements and provisions. The protected area

system will also include natural corridors, to be considered as suitable spaces for

the development of a soft, environmental friendly infrastructure.

d. Achieving the target of 20% of territorial protected land and 15% of maritime

protected area until 2030;

e. Creation of recreational spaces and natural attractions along river valleys;

f. Development of the national bike network, which acesses and crosses natural

areas and historical and cultural heritage areas;

g. Increase of public participation in the decision-making process and enforcement

of decisions for the good management of the natural system;

h. Consolidation and enhancement of performance for the good management of

nature, Protected Areas, and biodiversity, for the stakeholders at central and local

government level;

i. Integration of management plans with the planning systems and local plans;

j. Concurrent development of general local plans and the management plans, in

order to achieve the cohesion of planning instruments regarding the forecasts and

timeframes;

k. Surface increase of protected maritime and coastal areas in accordance to the

Aichi Convention of Biodiversity for 2020 objectives;

l. Promotion of natural assets use for recreational purposes and eco-tourism

promotion;

m. Sustainable, ecologic, and economic management of protected areas;

n. Integration of Albania in the Balkans and European context through the projects

on “Dinaric Arc Ecoregion” and “Europian Green Belt”;

o. Inclusion of the natural system in the economic development chain;

p. Re-forestation and regeneration projects in degraded areas due to natural

phenomena such as erosion and floods, but also due to human activity.

1.10 Water System

The ong>Nationalong> spatial plan is developed based on the national demands for sustainable

development in line with the present national priorities, the Governmental Program

for sustainable socio-economic development, as well as the European directives for

development priorities.

The Albanian territory is covered by 65 % of the total surface of water basins in the

Balkans, roughly 43.900 km2. Albania is a mountainous country with a coastal line

of approximately 450 km and is distinguished by a dense and rich hydrographic

network composed of rivers, sources, lakes, and waters of the coastal space in the

Adriatic and Ionian seas. Within this space, there are the estuaries and deltas of

8 main rivers of Albania formed by more than 152 rivers and streams. About 65%

of their catchment basins is extended within the Albanian territory, lagoon system

with a total surface of approximately 1500 km2, large sandy and rocky beaches,

series of wetlands, littoral belts, system of sandy dunes, forests, etc. All these

factors, along with the typical Mediterranean climate, make the Albanian coastal

area one of high ecological values. The relation of water to the other sectors of

economy is primary for Albania. It would suffice to mention that:

ʧ 99% of the energy we use comes from the exploitation of water sources,

ʧ 14 billion m3 of water is used for the energy sector,

ʧ 1.5 billion m3 of water is used for the agricultural sector.

The NSP addresses issues of the water system in terms of the potable water supply,

water for agricultural use, for land drainage and irrigation, water as a source of


28

Fig.10

Agriculture System


29

The policies supported by

the ong>Nationalong> Plan in this

regard are:

1. Preservation

2. Consolidation

3. Modernization

energy, impact of the water system due to climate changes.

Policies of urban development densification and natural corridors along river valleys

are the primary policies, which the ong>Nationalong> Plan brings in support of this system.

The NSP marks the blue line for the protection of water sources from prohibited

uses and private use.

ʧ 200 m distance from the maritime shoreline and at the same time, 2 m izoipsos

for the flat seashore, and 60 m izoipsos for the rocky coast.

ʧ 100 m distance from the river shore for river flows, prohibition of every activity,

and the 1 km belt of natural corridors associating their flow is maintained only for

use with nature as priority.

ʧ Protection of the Vjosa Catchment Basin, declaring it an Area of Protected

Landscape. Vjosa is distinguished from other rivers in the Balkans for the high

level of water potential, geological construction of the formations along it, and the

diversity of landscapes across the valley.

ʧ Demands for the safe supply of inhabited settlements is closely linked to the

technical requirements of water supply infrastructure. In this regard, the document

introduces some of the legal requirements to be taken into account when drafting

territorial plans for safer potable water supply.

ʧ Furthermore, the NSP document introduces the risks and proposes measures for

the protection and adaption of the climate changes, especially for the water system.

1.11 Agricultural System

Agriculture has traditionally been one of the important branches of economic

development in Albania. Agricultural products are part of the formation of regional

identity of the country, with a wide range of environmental, natural, and climatic

changes. While technological developments will replace the human role in many

agricultural processes, this sector remains the primary source of economic income

and employment opportunities in rural areas. However, the agricultural sector will

have to face and adapt to the constantly growing customer demands as a result of

the modernization and restructuring of marketing typology and the consequences

of climate changes. Efficiency in the food and agriculture sector, together with

fisheries and forestry, as well as diversification of farmers’ activities are key

components of the rural economy.

ʧ Even in the agricultural system, the polycentric development of the country

highlights the need for defining and identifying the main agricultural poles of the

country. Given the geographical position of the agricultural land, classification

of local economies, the history of development in the agricultural economy, and

the connective infrastructure network, about 40% of the total area of Albania is

classified as agricultural land (24% arable land and 15 percent of pastures) and the

rest is divided between forests (36 percent) and other functions.

ʧ 43% of the agricultural land, almost half of it, is concentrated in the most

populated part of the coastal western lowland. About 34% of agricultural land lies in

river valleys and 23% in the mountainous area.

ʧ 20% of the GDP comes as a contribution of the agricultural sector, but the greatest

contribution of this sector is the number of employees therein, approx. 50%.

ʧ The highest challenge in the sector is the reduction of the commercial imbalance

in the ratio between the import of agro-food products (increased by 40% in 2012

compared to 2007, while exports are increased at an evenhigher rate, ie 75% for

respective periods).

Maximum preservation of the agricultural land fund - through policies of


30

Fig.11

Regionalization of

agricultural products

Field products

Fruit trees

Viniculture

Olive groves

Citrus

Farming


31

The NSP proposals for an

Efficient Agricultural System,

for a competitive agricultural

sector consist on:

1. Preservation

2. Consolidation

3. Modernization

urban development densification. With the adoption of the ong>Nationalong> Plan 2030,

new constructions which do not serve the agricultural system are not allowed on

agricultural land.

ʧWell-functioning of the natural ecosystem by protecting it through bandages /

green corridors along waterways (rivers).

ʧReforestation of degraded forests and planting new areas of woodland in free

natural areas, while respecting the identity of the relevant forest area.

Establishment a successful network of agricultural economic chain: production

- collection - processing - marketing, in order to increase the value of the economic

chain.

Reduction of the cost and increase of quality through investments in:

ʧproduction technology for its modernization;

ʧinvestment in maintenance infrastructure, irrigation canals, pumping stations, etc.

Integration and cooperation with other sectors of the economy:

ʧAgriculture - tourism, where the peculiarity of the Albanian tourism sector is

identified also by agricultural products which are typical in taste and quality.

ʧAgriculture - transport, where transport infrastructure serves enhancing the

efficiency of the agricultural network in the collection and marketing of agricultural

products.

ʧAgriculture - Energy, where the energy used in the processing of agricultural

products goes towards the use of renewable resources.

Creation of centers / agricultural poles and profiling of the latter based on the

tradition of cultivation of local crops.

Creating brands of characteristic Albanian agricultural products - Made in

Albania. Specialization in the cultivation and processing of typical Albanian

products, such as:

ʧ Medicinal plants

ʧ Fruit trees, nut trees

ʧ Olives and vineyards

ʧ Characteristic vegetables of the country

ʧ Processed agricultural products

The NSP proposes the consolidation of 6 agricultural poles in

urban centers, Tiranë, Lushnje, Sarandë, Shkodër, Korçë & Dibër.

Determination of these centers as agricultural poles, necessarily means the

possessing and providing of some facilities to agricultural products.

In these centers, it is foreseen the establishment and consolidation of:

ʧ Research centers for analysis of the agricultural product,

ʧ Building structures with sufficient capacity for the collection, processing and

packaging of various agricultural products of local farmers,

ʧ The creation of local markets for the promotion and marketing of bio-organic

products, maintaining remote mountainous areas, forestry, fodder and other areas

suitable for the cultivation of aromatic plants from informal abusive interventions,

in order to ensure the continuity of cultivation and collection of various types of

aromatic plants, which are widely used in the pharmaceutical market,

ʧ Promoting research and development links between innovation centers and

processing of food products in order to form the country’s agricultural points/ poles.


32

Fig.12

Vision map of

Coastal Plan


33

2.

Cross-sectoral Integrated Plan for the Coast

The integrated coastal plan is a strategic document which aims to develop a balanced,

controlled, and sustainable coastal area. This strategic document for the next 15 years

aims at addressing the coastal space as a well-integrated territory of both the interior

territory and the maritime space. It aims at the creation of an integrated and interrelated

system of the tourism, culture, agriculture and nature sectors. Diversification of the

touristic package of the coast, which will also lead to the extension of the tourist season,

while turning the country into an attractive destination.

2.1 Goals

ʧ To ensure sustainable development of the coastal space that meets the needs of

generations to social equity, economic development, and environmental protection.

ʧ To harmonize public, private, national and local interest;

ʧ To orient development on the coast, while preserving its values.

ʧ To convert the coast in a shared space that everyone can enjoy.

ʧ To fairly and equally spred the services in the coastal space.

ʧ To use an integrated system that attempts to balance and harmonize the

development sectors.

2.2 Vision

The Coastal Plan expresses a clear, measurable, and achievable vision: The coast

as a national and important binomial sea-land asset and an integrated part of the

Mediterranean network. A well-managed space where the needs for economic

development and the local needs are harmonized with the necessity to protect the

cultural, natural, and historical assets. An authentic, diverse, and clean destination.

The plan expresses directly the need of the coastal area to be integrated within

the Mediterranean network; it sets a significant emphasis on protecting assets by

managing the diversity that the Albanian coast offers, and by interconnecting them,

it also aims at preserving the authentic traditional and local character, and the

cleanliness of this area as an opportunity to turn it into a unique destination.

2.3 Strategic Guidelines

The strategic orientations of the cross-sectoral intedgated plan of the coast are:

Preserving the identity of the coastal zone,

Managing and storing the natural and cultural resources along this area,

Interconnecting the coastal area with the interior of the territory to deliver

diversified tourism (from the coast to the mountains)

It orients the new development in harmony and coordinated with existing

developments, while preserving the traditional architecture,

It also recommends promotion as an efficient instrument for the attraction and

development of not only tourism, but also of other sectors.


34

Fig.13

Four Coastal Strips


35

Fig.14

Development sectors

Urban system

Infrastructure system

2.4 Sectoral Policies

The vision and strategic objectives are embodied in the territory through concrete

policies for 5 territorial systems. The main goal of the plan is the harmonization and

cohesion of development sectors.

The Urban System - Consolidation, densification, and regeneration of residential

areas and the orientation towards the inland development, preserving the traditional

architecture.

Infrastructure System - Connection to the main European corridors, covering

the entire coast with primary infrastructure and promotion of the use of ecological

infrastructures.

The Natural System - Preservation and development of various characters in the

coastal area and the promotion of landscape values.

The Water System - The good-management of the hydro system and the growth

of its use for the benefit of residents.

The Agricultural System - The subsidizing of the agricultural sector and support

for the development of agro-tourism.

Natural system

Water system

Agricultural system

2.5 The strategy of Integrated Coastal Plan

Strategy, as the most important part of this document, translates the analysis

conclusions and the vision guidelines, objectives, and policies in the cross-sectoral

strategy for the coastal area development. The chapter on Strategy starts with the

Integration of the Albanian coast in the Mediterranean space, through the project

of the Coastal Landscape Road, which aims at connecting the entire coast of the 26

Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, in the European and the Balkan context,

this integration is realized through the pipeline project, TAP, and its sub-sections.

Integration through other international projects, in environment and tourism.

Strips

The Strategy section then follows with scenarios and proposals for the development

of four Coastal strips, through their interconnection with each other, as they can not

function disconnected.

In the first strip, Sea-Sun, the diversified development of the coast is intended, the

protection from chaotic development and its well-management. The aim of the plan

for the development of this strip is the promotion of tourism activities that do not

harm the environment and do not alter the character of the area.

The second strip, which is considered as the agricultural strip aims to protect the

agricultural land, its development is related to other sectors of development such as

tourism, food industry, etc., In this strip the development of 3 poles for agricultural

products processing, including all levels of processing, is proposed.

The third strip, the one with cultural potentials, is considered the strip containing

the largest number of cultural monuments at the national level. For this strip the

good-management of cultural monuments, their promotion, and a better liaison

with other potentials of the country as coastal areas and natural attractions at the

national level, is intended.

The fourth strip is considered the one of 12 nautical miles. For this strip, the plan

aims its activization thanks to a significant potential on the coast and the good

connection between activities that take place here with various tourist activities


36

Fig.15

Tourism map


37

developed in the terrestrial space. Through various planning instruments as green

corridors, nature trails, various activities, services, etc., a good connection of the

four coastal strips and the development of activities in different spaces to diversify

the package of attractions for tourism development, is aimed for this area.

Zones

After providing general guidelines and policies for the four coastal strips, the plan

focuses more on the first one, the coast Sun-Sea, and divides it into four areas

according to the identity which has naturally created coastal zones.

ʧ Zone1, Shkodra, Lezha, Kurbin (Areas with a strong natural character)Protection

of the environment and cultural values. Access to natural and cultural values

through low environmental impact infrastructure.

ʧ Zone2, Durrës, Kavaja (An area of economic character) Integration into the clusters

that will be developed in the Tiranë-Durrës region and on the coastal ones. Access to

natural and cultural values through low environmental impact infrastructure.

ʧ Zone3, Rrogozhinë, Divjaka, Fier (An area with a strong agricultural identity)

Completion of the agricultural production cycle from production to packaging to

support the development of agro-tourism.

ʧ Zone 4, Vlorë, Himarë, Saranda, Konispol (An area with priority in the development

of the beach and cultural tourism) Promoting tourism potentials and domestic

production. Stimulation of traditional architecture.

2.6 Important Projects

Amongst the important projects for the Cross-sectoral Integrated Plan for the Coast

were selected those projects that directly meet the realization of the vision, among

which are:

ʧ The increase in capacity and service functions in each of the existing national

ports: Shëngjin, Durrës, Vlorë, Sarandë.

ʧ The development of at least one tourist marine (for elite tourism), in each of the 4

zones of the coast.

ʧ The coastal landscape road (Muriqan - Qafë Botë) of local character.

ʧ Itineraries which connect the coast to the interior of the territory.

ʧ Realization of basic infrastructure for all coastal centers that offer tourism.

ʧ Realization of 4 economic clusters along the coast, which would create 4 important

poles for the coastal development.

ʧ Development of marine sports and activities related to them (navigation education,

fishing, windsurf, etc.).

ʧ Development of marines and turning harbors to attraction poles.

ʧ The development of agro-tourism.

ʧ The development of local inns.

ʧ Restoration, conservation, and promotion of cultural monuments.

ʧ Development of the irrigation and drainage system in agriculture.

ʧ Development of factories / workshops, wherein the processing from raw material

to final product of typical local food products, is made.

ʧ The development of vocational schools for tourism, and educational and

environmental awareness raising projects.

Planning Regulation

The document ends with a clear regulation on standards and criteria to be respected

by any new interference in the coastal territory.


38

Fig.16

Vision map


39

3.

Cross-sectoral Integrated Plan for the economic

area Tirane – Durres

The Albanian Government and the ong>Nationalong> Spatial Plan have identified the Tiranë-

Durrës area, as one of the most important economic areas of the country, and of the

Balkan region. To ensure a sustainable territorial and urban development of this

area, the Ministry of Urban Development in cooperation with the ong>Nationalong> Territorial

Planning Agency has taken the initiative to draft a Cross-sectoral Integrated Plan for

the economic area Tiranë – Durrës. The metropolitan region under study includes

territories administered by 5 municipalities: Tiranë, Durrës, Vorë, Shijak, Kamëz.

In our vision, this economic zone is seen as a significant hub of the Balkans, as a

national and regional economic center, able to compete worthily in the Balkan area

and in Eastern Europe, ensuring sustainable development for the people and the

territory. The plan will serve as a guide for the new municipalities to coordinate

policies, projects and their local plans, between each other as well as for vertical

coordination and reconciliation. This plan should be used by them in the process

of drafting local general plans and strategic projects in order to be more efficient

in public and private investments. Finally, it also serves as a guarantee for foreign

investors and businesses, who are interested in being involved in the further

development of this economic area.

3.1 Goals

ʧ Return to a sustainable model for regional development.

ʧ Help meet the aspirations and achievements of future generations, youth, and

families.

ʧ Consolidate and regenerate urban and rural areas.

ʧ Strengthen and promote regional economic networks.

ʧ Develop infrastructure and promote regional sustainable mobility.

3.2 Vision

The Tirane-Durres economic region, a leader economy competing at international

level, as an important economic and political space, which manages to compete with

other metropolitan regions by attracting headquarters of programs and international

institutions based on innovative investments, which promote creative businesses

based on knowledge and promote a higher level of education and professional

skills. A region with a high quality of life that promotes and respects the healthy

living styles, access to quality health services, and the development of sustainable

communities. One of the most important economic areas of the Western Balkans, of

high prosperity and driven by significant changes in employment and competitive

infrastructure, where mobility and access to local, national, and international

levels are appropriate to the needs and demands of the residents and businesses,


40

Fig.17

Economy map


41

Within the fulfillment of the

vision are defined four key

strategic objectives:

1. The sustainable economic

development

2. Improvement of the quality

of life in urban / rural areas

3. Improvement of

infrastructure, transport and

mobility in the region

4. Protection and

improvement of the natural

environment quality

thanks to transportation solutions, which link communities with employment

opportunities and local services, control and reduce traffic, and improve strategic

ties, by rail, sea, and air. A region that values the historical and cultural past,

which competes metropolises of the Western Balkans, turning Tiranë-Durrës in an

attractive environment to local and international talent, of a creative labor force,

which is compatible with and preserves the high economic diversity characterizing

the region.

3.3.1 Strategic objective 1: sustainable economic development

The economic region Tiranë-Durrës is the economic pivot of Albania. Consequently,

it will continue to remain “the economic engine” of the country and will turn into a

competitive region in the Western Balkans. The region will turn into a space which

supports the principles of global economic competition, the creation of economic

clusters, based on the principles of metabolism, whereby the production and further

development is carried out under the paradigm of a closed cycle, where the waste

of one process are used as the raw material of another process.

Spatial Dimension of Economic Development

The plan aims at a continuous and sustainable economic development as an

international gateway of economic activities through:

ʧ The development of four economic clusters in compact urban centers with

specialized functions, supported by an Economic Development Zone, as well as

ports with specialized functions.

ʧ Supporting with economic incubators for the development of entrepreneurship

and innovation.

ʧ Focusing on the increase of the number of business structures in Tiranë-Durrës

Economic Corridor, powering mobility with multimodal trasport and logistics

centers that enable efficient access nationally. The creation of Economic Corridors

and Centers with specialized Economic Poles.

ʧ The integrated development of tourism strategies in urban centers, with a focus

on Service Tourism and Weekend Tourism, to create regional branding and regional

brands. Increase of natural areas and cultural itineraries, interlinked, in support of

sustainable environmental development and the development of natural and agrorural

tourism.

Polycentrism and hierarchization of Urban Centres

Establishment of a clear hierarchy between the centers of urban-rural region, which

will allow the specialization and complementary relationship of these centers in

relation to each other, it will create conditions for increasing the efficiency of public

investment, improving living conditions, and will lead the increase of the population

in compact specialized urban centers by hierarchy, while safeguarding the territory

from unsustainable development.

3.3.2 Strategic objective 2: improving the quality of life in urban /

rural areas

The chaotic development of the last decades associated also with informal

development provides a difficult urban overview. Viewing the high concentration of

urban areas in the region, it is aimed at the improvement of the quality of life and

environment for residents in the Tiranë-Durrës area, attracting talents and foreign

companies, beyond the local ones. Consequently, the urban-rural quality shall turn


42

Fig.15

Infrastructure

system map


43

Fig.18

Infrastructure

system scheme

Fig.19

Urban system scheme

Fig.20

Economy scheme

into an advantage for this plan. The development of urban centers is based on:

ʧ Consolidation of urban centers, through densification and regeneration.

ʧ Integration of informal settlements in urban centers through completion of the

legal process of legalization and the transformation of informal settlements, in

integrated spaces into the urban system.

ʧ Housing and social dwellings for all the social strata creating suitable spaces for

changes in population demographics. “Intelligent” density on human scale, with the

use of “mix-use” interrelated with services.

ʧ Comprehensive Regional Community space with accessibility for all groups and

individuals. Urban spaces, squares, and infrastructure designed to meet the needs

of all communities and particularly of disabled people.

ʧ Improvement of energy efficiency in housing and social buildings will be based

on the reduction of the energy costs, increase of the quality of life, and protection of

the environment. Encouraging the use of green terraces, as common property. The

use of photovoltaic panels in residential and social buildings. The establishment of

residential blocks with “green” certificates and differentiated taxation system.

A plan of urban sustainable mobility will be developed to meet the needs of mobility

within urban centers with mixed functions, for people and services, offered by

businesses through the development of public transport system and multimodal

system, alternative transport methods without pollution, efficiency of urban

logistics systems.

Sustainable rural development

Rural development aims at the welfare of the population in rural areas, improving

and meeting the community needs of these centers, and the creation of the necessary

infrastructure for agricultural development in harmony with environmental

development, while creating integrated systems for;

ʧ The creation of territorial spaces for the consolidation of agricultural land,

offering economies of scale in agricultural products and services specializing in

regional cultures, in the peri-urban and rural territories of the region.

ʧ The establisment of an administered system of water resources for irrigation in

agriculture, based on the water basins resources and the regional rivers Ishëm and

Erzen. Improvement of the water drainage infrastructure of the agricultural land.

ʧ The economic development of farms and agricultural cooperatives, the creation of

support activities for the development and efficiency of products in the agricultural

system through certification centers, collection centers, processing of products,

and agricultural incubators, thus creating closed agricultural economic cycles

and a regional self-sustainable food chain, supported by certified tradenames,

strengthening Regional Branding.

ʧ The creation of quick regional access roads for the movement of agricultural

goods and human capital from the rural centers towards urban centers, creating

opportunities for on-time placing of products on the market.

ʧ The consolidation of rural centers and public services allocated in the territory,

recovery of rural centers should be developed according to a chronology where

investment can maximize the benefits for local communities. Rural services and

community development, fulfillment of the needs for accommodation services

to rural communities is an obligation to ensure the longevity and well-being of

rural communities, relying on the facilitation of rural housing through the leading

planning system.


44

Fig.21

Urban system map


45

3.3.3 Strategic objective 3: improvement of infrastructure, transport

and mobility in the region

The development of regional access to the Balkans and Mediterranean metropolises,

by strengthening the role of the port of Durrës and the “Mother Teresa” airport.

Mobility improvement by creating overlapping modes of transportation between

urban, rural, and natural areas of this space in order to improve the connectivity of

businesses and individuals access to the regional services provided. The creation of

healthy movement ways, pollution-free, for people and environment, while offering;

ʧ The creation of Regional Integrated Mobility networks to create entry gates to

regional and national axis for the management of population flows, tourists, and

goods by sea, land, and air.

ʧ The creation of multi-modal mobility systems outside urban centers, supported

with public railway lines for passengers between urban centers and economic areas,

improving the environmental quality and reducing the use of personal vehicles.

ʧ The creation of regional mobility system with low environmental impact,

promoting the improvement of public health, and increasing the possibilities of

connecting the grid of natural tourist areas to urban centers, thanks to the bicycle

movement axes in the regional area.

ʧ The development of underground infrastructure with central management

systems for urban centers and economic areas, as well as meeting the needs of the

population for drinking water, energy, and an efficient telecommunications system.

3.3.4 Strategic objective 3: protection and improvement of the

natural environmental quality

Conservation of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, where water is

considered an advantage for the development, improvement of the quality, and

safety, as well as access to the Adriatic Sea, the use of technologies with zero

harmful emissions. The integration of natural areas to a natural interconnected

regional system, safeguarding the natural resources as finite assets, including and

integrated water system and the natural system, a system associated with urban

centers, through the creation of connected networks of parks at local, regional, and

national level. The creation of habitats and a sustainable environment with mixed

functions spaces in the service of relaxation and recreation for urban centers.

Protecting surface and underground water system from unsustainable development,

thanks to the establishment of the “buffer” areas and the development of green

corridors in the river networks. The interruption of discharge of untreated urban

and industrial waters in the rivers Ishëm and Erzen, including their sub-sections,

creating the construction of the “river chambers” network as part of the green

infrastructure, for the management of floods due to climate changes.

Creating a management system of regional waste, to reduce the level of environmental

pollution, and increase the efficiency and quality of services in urban centers, due

to the reduction - reuse - recycling, collection and processing of organic waste,

collection, storage, and management of waste in regional landfills. The creation

and application of concepts and methods for the management of spatial planning

besides the adaptive and mitigation policies on climate and climate changes.


46

© rilind hoxha


47


Agjencia Kombëtare e Planifikimit të Territorit

ong>Nationalong> Territorial Planning Agency

Address: Rr. “Muhamet Gjollesha”, Nr. 57

Kutia Postare 1023, Tirane/ Albania

www.planifikimi.gov.al

info@planifikimi.gov.al

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