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280218_Luxor-Egypt SECAP Final_revised

3.5 3 R7 2.5 Probability

3.5 3 R7 2.5 Probability 2 1.5 1 R4 R10 R6,R8 R3 R1, R2, R5, R9 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Impact Figure 24: Risk assessment figure in case of climate data availability - Luxor 6. National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Measures There is a noteworthy legal framework, but nevertheless, many policy plans are in implementation and many government agencies are responsible for integrating CC into the national policy agenda were executed. However, the Governorate of Luxor should develop their local policy and agenda for CCAMM. The Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies fall under the mandate of the MoEnv and its executive arm EEAA. A climate change unit (CCU) was established in the EEAA in 1992, which has since been upgraded to the Central Department for Climate Change (CDCC). 6.1. Climate Change Action Plan - CCAP The Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) was developed by the MoEnv through the Second National Communication (SNC) to UNFCCC, which was established in 2000. An inventory of GHG emissions, including policies has been created to mitigate and evaluate their economic impacts after reduction. Such policy was not implemented or released until 2015. Results of the inventory of GHG emission yield an increase of the total emissions at an average of 5.1% yearly. The GHG emissions were highly influenced by four sectors that contribute significantly to total emissions. These are: a) energy, which accounted for 61% of the total in 2000, 27%, of which was transportation-related; b) agriculture by 16%; c) industrial processes by 14%; and d) waste by 9%. Despite, the reduction of GHG emissions reported above there are barriers to GHG mitigation. Such barriers can be summarised as follows: 110 • Institutional capacity constraints, • Lack of information about GHG reduction opportunities and technology, and • Limited access to investment capital needed to execute mitigation technologies and procedures. Nonetheless, an estimate of nearly 8.3mt CO 2-e reduction due to the existing mitigation efforts, which focused on three areas: a) Fuel substitution; b) Renewable energy; and c) Energy efficiency 59 . In addition, a Climate Change Risk Management Programme (CCRMP) was established in 2008 as a

esult of a partnership between Egypt and the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDGAF). The CCRMP has three main objectives to: • Integrate GHG mitigation into national policy and investment frameworks; • Increase climate change adaptation capacities, particularly in agriculture and water; • Raise awareness regarding the impacts of climate change 59 . Key achievements that came out of such joint programme are to successfully assist in and support the establishment of the following units and capacity building: • Clean Development Mechanism Awareness & Promotion Unit (CDMAPU) within EEAA, • Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) that advises the Cabinet on energy efficiency, • The MoWRI’s capabilities to forecast climate change scenarios, and • The irrigation research and climate change crop simulation activities of the Ministry of Acclamation of Land Resources (MALR). Further to the SNC to UNFCCC, Egypt published in 2010 a National Environmental, Economic and Development Study (NEEDS) for CC to outline the financial and institutional needs for implementing prospective and on-going adaptation and mitigation measures. This study recognizes that the next phases of CC planning should include a National Action Plan for Adaptation (NAPA) and National Low Carbon Economy Plan (NLCEP). The NEEDS report highlights the urgency for developing a GHG monitoring system that aggregates and disseminates information about GHG emissions across sectors. 6.2. Adopted Measures within the framework of the INDCs There are national efforts, which have been realized in the adaptation and mitigation. Egypt's adaptation efforts can be outlined as per the INDCs 2015 as follows: Adaptation Challenges The vulnerability of Egypt's water resources to climate change depends on Nile flows, rainfall, and ground water. Agricultural sector Climate change studies expect that the productivity of two major crops in Egypt - wheat and maize – will be reduced by 15% and 19%, respectively, by 2050. Losses in crop productivity are mainly attributed to frequent temperature increase, irrigation water deficit, and pests and plant disease. In addition, 12% to 15% of the most fertile arable land in Nile Delta is negatively affected by sea level rise and salt water intrusion. In terms of livestock production, current evidence shows that temperature rise leads to harmful heat stress, which negatively impacts livestock productivity. New animal diseases have emerged in Egypt, which have strong negative impacts on livestock production. These include bluetongue disease and rift valley fever, which are both attributed to significant changes in the Egyptian climate. Climate change is expected to increase seawater temperature, shifting fish distributions northwards to live in deeper waters. In addition, increased water salinity in the coastal lakes in Egypt is expected to negatively affect fish species. Coastal zones Costal zones are expected to suffer from climate change direct impacts. These include sea level rise and the overflow of low-level land. Estimations indicate that sea level rise by 50 cm leads to serious 111

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