9 months ago

280218_Luxor-Egypt SECAP Final_revised

This should be

This should be established as early as possible and would require a budget of about 50.000 € / year. Educational and awareness raising campaigns should be developed to inform people about health impacts of heat waves, floods, vector borne diseases, etc., and educate residents on the ways to protect their health and prevent infection or disease outbreaks. This should be launched as early as possible and would require a budget of about 30.000 € / year. Technical measures Mitigate risk of disease outbreak through appropriate maintenance of the city’s cleanliness, as well as regular quality control of sewage and drainage systems. Indeed sewage, waste dumps and dormant waters are reservoirs for serious diseases. Unless the City services fix these components, health risks will remains high in the city. The first step of this technical programme will be the mapping of hot spots for the development of communicable and vector borne diseases in order to design the most appropriate remediation plan. Improving water quality control is also necessary as water availability is essential. First, to cover the basic needs of people particularly during periods of heat waves. Secondly, because it can be a vehicle for spreading diseases if quality control is not sufficient. Systems are already in place and need to be improved. Such improvement could be implemented such as the water delivery system upgrading proposed to reduce energy consumption in this sector (refer to Section III, part 4.1.4 / p.37). 7.2. Infrastructure management Current infrastructures (roads, bridges, dock sides) have not been design considering the risk generated by dangerous climate change. It is time now to implement the appropriate measures to monitor the occurrence of possible problems and design appropriate remediation action. Strategic actions Water and Waste Water management plan is under design as part of this SECAP (refer to Section III, part 4.1.4 / p.37). This plan is must to ensure proper management of water flux particularly in the case of heavy rains that could overpass absorption capacities of the current system. This plan also needs to consider artificialized areas that will speed up water run-off. The Nile River banks already received a protection action against erosion with some parts receiving cement to clad some selected areas. Improve infrastructure monitoring, particularly for bridges and docksides to anticipate any problems that would undermine their resistance to high waters and floods. The adequate process should be set up to ensure that any problem identified will result in an immediate remediation process. This also means designing new specifications for bridges and docksides to match the maximum expected flow during extreme events. Modelling predicted demand and supply in electricity to adapt production capacities to actual requirements. Heat waves will increase the demand as well as degrading performance of solar PV. It is then key to develop models that will ensure a perfect match between demand and supply to avoid blackout when people are in particular need of electricity. 116

Alert / Communication / Education Developing an early warning system: to alert citizens in case part of the infrastructure has been severely damaged, and citizens should avoid using it or even possibly preparing for a major disaster. Educational and awareness raising campaigns: Developing guidance and advice for citizens on how to save water and energy, especially during climate crisis. This should be embedded in the different awareness messages developed as part of the campaigns to promote energy conservation and efficiency measures. Technical measures Establish underground water reservoirs and develop a flood control system. Reservoirs are necessary to retain water in case of heavy rains. Such reservoirs should be located in strategic areas where water gets channelled. Reservoir will retain water and avoid dramatic run off that could cause adverse impacts to the built environment downstream. Such reservoirs should be part of a flood control system that will monitor the Nile river level and occurrence of heavy rain. Upgrade of riverside defence systems near potentially affected facilities and conduct potential re-engineering to increase the height of docksides. This could be done along the plan to reorganize docksides and install solar PV, as mentioned in this SECAP Section III (refer to part 4.2.2 – Tourism sector, page 42). 7.3. Land planning and building management Strategic Modify the building codes to promote more energy efficient and heat tolerant structures. Upper Egypt has been the place where very efficient building techniques has been developed in the old times. The Nubian Vault is one these techniques only requiring mud and clay (no cement, no wood, and no iron) to elaborate on buildings that are particularly well adapted to hot regions. This technic has been reactive by some architects and researchers, but also by a French NGO “Association voûte nubienne” 59 . More than 3000 buildings were produced in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Ghana, Benin) offering very qualitative results at an affordable cost. The City of Luxor could develop a set of buildings using this technique in demonstrative districts and valuing this resurgence of a building method invented in Upper Egypt 3500 years ago. Set up incentives for innovative climate friendly buildings. This could be done, for example, through the provision of reductions on the municipal taxes for those proceeding in adoption of adaptation measures in their houses. Develop an integrated land use planning with zoning system depending on the different areas exposed to risk, dedicated to protection infrastructures or areas, and/or to innovative building methods. This land planning should take into account the three most important element of pressure that combines in the City of Luxor: growing urbanisation, tourism around heritage sites, requirement 59 117

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