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280218_Luxor-Egypt SECAP Final_revised

a. Building activities

a. Building activities close to monuments b. Visual Pollution 3. Problems and Problem Indication Image 4: Physical problems Figure 1 represents conflict/ pressure contributing to the unbalanced urban development and other activities, mainly agricultural development vs. heritage sites, which is the chronic cause responsible for the current situation. Such an unbalanced situation should rather be smoothed. Instead of cantonised archaeological, urban and agricultural spots, Al-Qurna's different characteristic components (urban, agricultural and archaeological and heritage sites) should be harmonised and in balance. To realise the above thought harmonised state, it is essential to pinpoint the hazards and risks applying the above-mentioned SECAP sectorial analysis. However, as explored in the previous section – 2.4, a wider exploratory investigation is needed, taking on board the strategic urban development (SUD) analysis as well as heritage site management (HSM) analysis. These three types of analyses should be integrated together for a more profound investigation to define the most efficient interventions and actions to mitigate the current status. Figure 2 shows the adopted three types of analyses: SECAP, SUD and HSM to overlap and define the core, prioritised interventions. SECAP Most efficient activities/ projects Figure 2: Towards a well-balanced environment in the West Bank of Luxor 7

Consequently, the following will be conducted in the following section: SECAP: problems are traced and defined as per the SECAP given sectors. Main stakeholders and their activities are defined. Strategic Urban Development (SUD): further study is conducted to define cross impacts, focusing on conflicts among sectors causing the above notified imbalanced planning and inefficient urban management responsible for the current status. Heritage Site Management (HSM): special emphases are given to the heritage sites through conducting hazards/ risks analysis on monuments and archaeological sites. The outcomes of the above three types of analyses shall be integrated, overlapped to define most pressing and common influencing problems responsible for the current status. Consequently, short, medium and long term actions can be defined to confront them. 4. Hazards & Risks Analyses 4.1 SECAP sectors analysis. - Urban and building (including agricultural activities): Urban expansion grows to introduce further activities that increase carbon emissions. Due to unplanned expansions, there is no land use strategy causing encroachment violation against agricultural lands. This increases the level of carbon emissions due to its relatively higher rate in household activities compared to those in agricultural activities. Lacking any coordination or a common strategy that organise the safeguarding of heritage and archaeological site premises along the mountain, as well as the uncontrolled increased demand for urban areas, cause encroachments and violations against existing agricultural areas. a. Unplanned expansions b. Encroachments and violations against existing agricultural areas - Transportation: Image 5: SECAP sectors - Urban and building problems By road, Luxor Bridge, introduced without prior Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies, has caused unprecedented expansions and motor traffic to the West Bank. The increased housing, in addition to development growth rate, increased the demand for transportation. Lacking public means, individual fossil fuel based means were increased. Motorcycles and toktok cars have increased, thus also increasing the respective carbon emissions. The transportation routes available are from the Nile ferryboat stop up to the ticketing office along Memnoun street, Memnoun Colossal and its surrounding archaeological sites. Nevertheless, the other villages surrounding the premises of the Supreme Council of Antiquities and Habo temples and the other archaeological sites are deprived from regular public means of transportation. Hence, inhabitants of such villages, such as those surrounding Habo temples, had to count on individual motorcycles, which contribute much to carbon emissions, as well as other means of pollution affecting also the archaeological 8

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