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280218_Luxor-Egypt SECAP Final_revised

Table 12: Climate Change

Table 12: Climate Change Risks by Sectors – Luxor Climate Change Risks by Sectors Agriculture and food security Global and regional studies indicate generally deficits and decline in crops’ yields for Sugar cane, wheat, maize, and bananas. Increasing pressures on food security as a result of climate change. Water stress and drought Water stress could increase with climate change. Mean precipitation patterns could decrease with climate change. Groundwater could experience increased of its salinity due to River Nile drop (RLR/D) or droughts. And reduce it salinity due to RLN rise Ecosystems Coral reefs’ growth suffered from underwater activities – a decline in growth by 40% during 1987–2000. A drastic decline of ~49% and 45% between 2000 and 2013 respectively. In addition, coral reef bleaching in the sea areas will increase 80% by 2060. Water acidification, that affect and treat mangroves in sea biodiversity, may include over 100 species. Tourism Heat waves will affect attractiveness and tourism movement in Egypt. Loss in beaches’ tourism due to coral reefs bleaching in the sea area. Urban Increase thermal discomfort and heat strokes, particularly in urban areas due to high temperatures and pollutions. Infrastructure failure due to storms and resulted floods. Air quality in cities decreases due to climate change. Climate Change Risks by Sectors Health Higher temperatures, water stress and malnutrition increase rift valley fever, avian influenza, and diarrhoea. Dust and sand storms affect patients with respiratory history and problems. Heat wave and higher temperatures increase cases of heat strokes and death in elderly citizens. Vulnerability Exposed Exposed Exposed Exposed Exposed Doesn’t exist Doesn’t exist Exposed Doesn’t exist Exposed Exposed Exposed Vulnerability Exposed Exposed Exposed 96 Adaptation Scoreboard The adaptation scoreboard is part of the SECAP template developed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The City of Luxor, Governorate of Luxor is intended to realize a self-assessment of its adaptation status, putting a grade from A to D, in line with its progress regarding the Adaptation Cycle Steps. This was based on meetings and interview with the Director of Environment, Governorate of Luxor between July and August 2017. More specifically: • “A”, corresponds to completion level of 75 - 100%, • “B”, corresponds to completion level of 50-75%,

• “C”, corresponds to completion level of 25-50%, and finally • “D”, corresponds to completion level of 0-25%. Based on coordination meetings and extensive interview in Luxor during August 2017, the city of Luxor – Governorate of Luxor (municipality) has developed a score based on grades ranging from A to D according to the above four grades to each one of the adaptation cycle specific steps, as presented in Table 13. Table 13: Governorate’s (Municipality’s) score in the Adaptation Cycle Specific Steps (SECAP template and JRC guidelines) – Luxor Adaptation Cycle Steps Step 1: Preparing the ground for adaptation Actions Grades (A – D) Adaptation commitments defined/integrated into the local climate policy Human, technical and financial resources identified Adaptation team (officer) appointed within the municipal administration and clear responsibilities assigned Luxor D C Technical D Step 2: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change Horizontal (e.g. across departments) coordination mechanisms in place Vertical (e.g. across governance levels) coordination mechanisms in place Consultative and participatory mechanisms set up, fostering the multi stakeholder engagement in the adaptation process Continuous communication process in place Mapping of the possible methods and data sources for carrying out a Risk and Vulnerability Assessment conducted Assessment of climate risks and vulnerabilities undertaken Possible sectors of actions identified and prioritized D C D B C C D Steps 3 and 4 – Identifying, assessing and selecting adaptation options Step 5: Implementing Step 6: Monitoring and evaluation Available knowledge periodically reviewed and new finding integrated Full portfolio of adaptation actions compiled, documented and assessed Possibilities of mainstreaming adaptation in existing policies and plans assessed, possible synergies and conflicts identified Adaptation actions developed and adopted Implementation framework set with clear milestones Adaptation actions implemented and mainstreamed as defined in the SECAP document Coordinated action between adaptation and mitigation set Monitoring framework in place for adaptation actions Appropriate monitoring and evaluation indicators identified Regular monitoring of the progress and reporting to the relevant decision makers Adaptation strategy and/or Action Plan updated, revised and readjusted according to the findings of the monitoring and evaluation procedure C D D C D D C D D D D 97

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