10 months ago

020318_Hurghada SECAP_FINAL

3. Achieve biological

3. Achieve biological diversity of all livestock, fishery, and poultry elements to protect them and ensure food security. 4. Develop agro-economic systems and new structures to manage crops, fisheries and animal production, which are resilient to climate changes. 5. Increase the efficiency of irrigation water use, while maintaining crop productivity and protecting land from degradation. 6. Review of new and existing land use policies and agricultural expansion programs to take into account possibilities of land degradation in Delta and other affected areas resulting from Mediterranean Sea level rise. 7. Develop systems, programs and policies to protect rural community and support its adaptive capacity to the expected trend in land use change, plant and animal production, and internal migration due to climate change. Health Sector: 1. Identify potential health risks as a result of climate change. 2. Raise community awareness about CC risks and means of adaptation. 3. Increase the efficiency of the healthcare sector and improve the quality of health services in dealing with climate change. 4. Support the Ministry of Health efforts to improve the social and economic status and population characteristics. Urban Sector - Population: 1. Draw a baseline scenario for the optimal regional distribution of population and economic activities within the geographical boundaries of Egypt up to the year 2100, taking climate change into consideration. Tourism Sector: 1. Reduce climate change risks in touristic areas. 2. Engage users in supporting the proposed strategy. 3. Support periodical monitoring and observations systems and follow-up bodies. 4. Raise environmental awareness. 5. Cooperate with international bodies. 6. Incorporate disaster risks promoting sustainable tourism in Egypt. 7. Capacity building of local communities in touristic areas. Energy Sector: 1. Conduct comprehensive studies to assess the impact of CC on the energy sector, propose appropriate adaptation measures, and estimate the economic cost of the proposed adaptation measures. These studies should also determine the safe locations for the construction of power generation projects. 2. Build institutional and technical capacities of different units in the energy sector in climate change issues. 3. Support research and technological development to enable the electricity sector to deal properly with climate change. 7. Adaptation Actions in the City of Hurghada The governorate, having compiled the vulnerability analysis and risk assessment, needs to identify a specific set of actions that will allow it to adapt to the situation it faces. A list of adaptation actions, identified from the international literature and best practices available, are presented in the following chapter, for each one of the five sectors studied above. Of course, additional measures, depending also on the local needs and situation would be necessary. However, the actions listed below are considered to be a good starting point. For each one of the five sectors, a further distinction of the adaptation actions in four categories is realised: • Strategic actions: Actions regarding the formulation of action plans, or strategic policy planning documents that set the basis for all the actions to come in the specific sector, 102

• Alert /Communication actions: These are focusing on alerting the citizens on a situation, such as an extreme climate event or hazard (high temperatures, floods, tsunamis etc.), • Educational actions: The focus in this case is on increasing the awareness raising level of the citizens of a specific threat or situation that the municipality is faced with and requires the citizens’ collaboration in one way or another, and • Technical actions: Activities that are directly addressing technically specific climate hazard. Following tables focus on a set of suggested adaptation actions on the population and public health, infrastructure, built environment, economy and biodiversity. 7.1. Public health and quality of life Extreme weather events - particularly heat peaks and heavy rains or floods - might have significant impact on public health and potential diseases outbreak. 7.1.1. Strategic actions Health action plan for the extreme events: This is mainly about improving monitoring systems to ensure that any disease development or strong disturbance in public health will be detected early and addressed by competent public health services in the City of Hurghada (and later on across the Governorate of the Red Sea). This plan is currently under development. To optimise reactivity in case of a problem, a collaborative approach with the regional medical services needs to be developed. This includes processes to reach the appropriate preparedness level. Improve sheltering capacities: Improve air conditioning in public services (hospitals, city hall, etc.) using climate friendly options to offer appropriate extreme heat protection to those citizens that lack the infrastructure to protect themselves. Such sites should also be considered as potential shelters when other types of extreme weather events will affect the more vulnerable groups (storms, floods). 7.1.2. Alert / Communication / Education This focuses on developing an early warning system to alert citizens in the case of extreme weather events or natural disasters such as heat waves, floods, etc. This system needs to be set up as early as possible connected with national monitoring centres to be able to transmit appropriate information as early as possible to the citizens of Hurghada. Aerial mapping, maps and records are already used for evaluation of such alert actions, but the system needs to be refined to reach the appropriate level of effectiveness. Educational and awareness raising campaigns are regularly conducted to inform people about health impacts of heat waves, floods, vector borne diseases, etc., and educate residents on the ways to protect their health and prevent infection or disease outbreak. 7.1.3. Technical measures Mitigate risk of disease outbreak is currently secured through appropriate maintenance of city cleanliness, as well as regular quality control of sewage and drainage systems. Indeed sewage, waste dumps and dormant waters are reservoirs for serious diseases. Unless the City properly manages the sewage collection and treatment system, as it currently does, health risks would remain high in the city. A mapping of hot spots for the development of communicable and vector borne diseases are under development to design the most appropriate remediation plan when any problem occurs. Improving water quality control is also necessary as water availability is essential. First, to cover basic needs of people, particularly during the period of heat waves. Secondly, because water can be a vehicle for spreading disease if quality control is not sufficient. Systems are already in place ensuring continuous monitoring of water quality across the city. However, the mechanism in place needs a continuous improvement process to match the ambition of Hurghada being 103

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