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020318_Hurghada SECAP_FINAL

a world-class

a world-class sustainable tourism destination. Such improvement could be implemented along the water delivery system upgrading proposed to reduce energy consumption of this sector (see Section III Chapter 5.1.3 / p35). 7.2. Infrastructure management Current infrastructure (roads, harbour, dock sides) has not been designed in consideration of the risks generated by dangerous climate change. It is now time to implement the appropriate measures to monitor occurrences of possible problems and design appropriate remediation action. There are no bridges in the city of Hurghada. The only new bridge in the Governorate has been built near Safaga, complying with the appropriate climate adaptation specifications. 7.2.1. Strategic actions A Water and Waste Water management plan has been designed by the company in charge. This plan is designed to ensure proper management of water flux particularly in the case of heavy rains that could overpass absorption capacities of the current system. This plan actually considers artificial areas that speed up water run-off. Improving infrastructure monitoring, particularly docksides, to anticipate any problems that would undermine their resistance to high seawaters and floods. Although appropriate monitoring is done on a weekly basis and report back during a dedicated “infrastructure meeting”, action plans in case of problem still needs to be improved to ensure immediate remediation process will take place. Modelling predicted demand and supply in electricity to adapt production capacities to actual requirements. Heat waves will increase the demand as well as degrading performance of solar PV. This is then the key to developing models that will ensure a perfect match between demand and supply to avoid blackout when people particularly need electricity. 7.2.2. Alert / Communication / Education Early warning system is up and running to alert citizens in case a part of the infrastructure has been severely damaged, and citizens should avoid using it or even worth get prepared to major disaster. When infrastructure is unavailable, diversion routes are proposed. Educational and awareness raising campaigns are conducted regularly delivering guides and advices for citizens on how to save water and energy, especially during climate crisis. This should be more systematically embedded in the different awareness messages developed as part of the campaigns to promote energy conservation and efficiency measures. 7.2.3. Technical measures Establish underground water reservoirs and develop a flood control system. Reservoirs are necessary to retain water in case of heavy rains. Such reservoirs should be located in strategic areas where water gets channelled. Reservoir will retain water and avoid dramatic run off that could cause adverse impact to the built environment downstream. Such reservoirs should be part of a flood control system that will monitor occurrence of heavy rain. Upgrading of the flood defence system is also underway through building new lakes water breakers. New desalinisation plants are about to be built to complement the existing ones operating in the Governorate to secure the potable water supply in any possible situation. The drainage system is currently subject to a major upgrading plan in Hurghada. 104

Controlled flood management zones have been identified and new equipment is under development after residents were moved away from affected areas. The Governorate of Red Sea has already started some adaption actions in Ras Ghareb, city of Hurghada and south of the Governorate, including ten storm water dams, and six artificial lakes. Ras Ghareb: Three storm water dams have been built in the Governorate of Red Sea to protect the city from storms’ effect and floods as follows: 1- Wadi Al droub west of Ras Ghareb: Strom water dams in Wadi Hawashia: i. Hawashia I: 258 m long x 49 m wide x 4 m high, ii. Hawashia II: 370 m long x 49 m wide x 4 m high, and iii. Hawashia III: 500 m long x 49 m wide x 4 m high. 2- One artificial lake to store the rain and storm water. Hurghada: Three storm water dams and 4 lakes in the city of Hurghada are under construction: 1- Faleq Al Sahel and Faleq Al Wa’ar - west of Hurghada: a. Faleq Al SaheI: 395 m long x 76 m wide x 8.50 m high), west of Hurghada, and b. Faleq Al Wa’ar: 295 m long x 92 m wide x 9 m high. 2- Four artificial lakes to store the rain and storm water. i. Umm Dalfa lake: 1500 m long x 300 wide x 2 m deep, ii. Faleq Al Sahel 2 lake: 1500 m long x 200 m wide x 2 m deep, iii. Faleq Al Wa’ar 3 lake: 1500 m long x 150 m wide x 2 m deep, and iv. Wadi Melieka lake: 600 m long x 150 m wide x 2 m deep. Marsa Alam: Four storm water dams south of the city of Hurghada are under construction. Also, a water direction wall is under construction to protect the village from storm water and floods. Al Shalateen: One storm water dam south of Marsa Alam and Al Qusair is under construction to protect the city from storms’ effect and floods. (Wadi Hudaeen: 170 m long x 117 m wide x 12 m high). 7.3. Land planning, building management ad biodiversity protection 7.3.1. Strategic Modify the building codes to promote more energy efficient and heat tolerant structures. Upper Egypt has been the place where very efficient building techniques have been developed in the old times. The Nubian Vault is one these techniques only requiring mud and clay (no cement, no wood, no iron) to elaborate buildings that are particularly well adapted to hot regions. This technique has been re-activated by some architects and researchers, but also by a French NGO “Association voûte nubienne” 57 . More than 3,000 buildings were produced in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Ghana, Benin) offering very qualitative results at an affordable cost. The City of Hurghada could develop a set of buildings using this technique in demonstrative districts and valuing this “come back” of a building method invented in Upper Egypt 3500 years ago. Set up incentives for innovative climate friendly buildings. This could be done, for example, through the provision of reductions on the municipal taxes for those proceeding in adoption of adaptation measures in their houses. Develop an integrated land use planning with zoning system depending on the different areas exposed to risk, dedicated to protection infrastructures or areas, and/or to innovative building methods. This land planning should take into account the most important element of pressure that combines in the City of Hurghada: growing urbanisation and 57 www.lavoutenubienne.org/en 105

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