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020318_Hurghada SECAP_FINAL

References Elkhayt, M.

References Elkhayt, M. 2016. The Egyptian Perspective: The Status Quo of Renewable Energies and the Framework of Energy-Governance, Ch. 1; “A Guide to Renewable Energy in Egypt and Jordan: Current Situation and Future Potentials.” ISBN: 978‐9957-484-62-0, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Available at: www.fes-jordan.org/ (Accessed: 31.08.2016). http://www.reeep.org/egypt-2012/ - http://www.reegle.info/policy-and-regulatory-overviews/EG. NEEAP Egypt published at RCREEE - Available at: www.rcreee.org/ (Accessed: 17.08.2016). UNDP – available at http://www.eg.undp.org/ (Accessed: 20.08.2016). http://www.moee.gov.eg/english_new/Presentations/EEDC.pdf/ (Accessed: 16.08.2016). Mints – MISR National Transport Study, the comprehensive study on the Master Plan for Nationwide Transport system, Egypt, Final Report, March 2012, JICA - available at: http://www.open_JICAreport.JICA.go.jp/pdf/12057584.pdf Transport Sector the way forward, Ministry of Transport. http://www.comcec.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/03/COMCEC_EGYPT.pdf http://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/09/RESILIENCE-Resilient-Cities-Acceleration- Initiative.pdf/ - (Accessed: 26.08.2016) RCREEE at: www.rcreee.org/ - (Accessed: 29.07. 2016). The Ministry of Investment and International Cooperation, MoIIC – Available at: http://www.miic.gov.eg/Front/Cooperation/DevPartnerList.aspx - (Accessed: 14.08.2017). Energy Efficiency Building Code, a Roadmap for Implementation in the MENA Region, September 2013, MED-ENEC – (Accessed: 20.08.2016). Energy efficiency Project – Waty El Watt, UNDP and GEF, available at: http://www.php.eepegypt.org/. http://www.meobserver.org/?p=4210 Alberto Marini, Mohamed Talbi, Desertification and Risk Analysis Using High and Medium Resolution Satellite Data: Training Workshop on Mapping Desertification, Springer Science & Business Media, 2008, p. 274. Olagunju, Temidayo Ebenezer, Ecology and Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria., "Drought, desertification and the Nigerian environment," academic journals, Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment., vol. 7, pp. 196-209, July, 2015. NESCO, "What is desertification? Objective: Introduce the phenomenon of desertification," Available at: www.unesco.org/mab/doc/ekocd/chapter1.html - (Accessed on July 15, 2017). E.C.OERKE, Institute for Plant Diseases, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 9, D-53315 Bonn, Germany, "Crop losses to pests" The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. Volume 144, no. Issue 01, pp. pp 31-43, February 2006. Elizabeth Martin Perera and Todd Sanford, "Climate Change and Your Health: Rising Temperatures, Worsening Ozone Pollution," Union of Concerned Scientists, June 2011. Egyptian Weather forecast Centre, (EWFC) Ministry of Health report, 17 th August 2015 "Climate: Observations, projections and impacts," UK Met Office, 2011 David Tresilian, "Egypt and climate change," Ahram weekly, May 2014. Available at: weekly.ahram.org.eg /News/6060/32/Egyptand-climate-change.aspx – Accessed: 20.04.2016. Christopher R. Adams, "Impacts of Temperature Extremes", available at: http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/ socasp/weather1/adams.html/ - Accessed: 20.04.2016. "Historical Climate Variability and Change, Egypt dashboard", The World Bank Group, 2016, Available at: sdwebx.worldbank.org/climateportalb/home.cfm?page=country_profile&CCode=EGY&ThisTab=RiskOverview. Accessed: 20.04.2016 Joel Smith, Bruce McCarl Texas, Paul Kirshen James Malley and Mohamed Abdrabo, "Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Egyptian Economy 2013," United Nations Development Programme, Cairo, Egypt, 2013 Alexandra Fielden Intern, "Ignored Displaced Persons: the plight of IDPs in urban areas," Policy Development and Evaluation Service, UNHCR, no. 161, July 2008 C. P. Kumar, "Climate Change and Its Impact on Groundwater Resources," International Journal of Engineering and Science, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 43-60, October 2012 214

Omran E. Frihy, Khalid M. DewidarMohamed El Raey, "Evaluation of coastal problems at Alexandria, Egypt," Researchgate, Vol. 30, pp. 281-295, January 1996 Shardul Agrawala, Annett Moehner, Mohamed El Raey, Declan Conway, Maarten van Aalst, Marca Hagenstad and Joel Smith, "Development and Climate Change in Egypt: Focus on Coastal Resources and the Nile," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD, 2004 "World Development Indicators: Freshwater," World Bank, Available at: wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.5/ Hossain, "Global Warming induced Sea Level Rise on Soil, Land and Crop Production Loss in Bangladesh," in 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Brisbane, Australia, August 6, 2010 "Water Scarcity in Egypt," Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Egypt, February 2014 CAPMAS - Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics – available at www.capmas.org.eg Bates, B.C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu and J.P. Palutiko, "Analyzing regional aspects of climate change and water resources," IPCC Secretariat, 2008 Mohamed El Raey, "Impacts and Implications of Climate Change for the Coastal Zones of Egypt," The Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington, 2010. Elsharkawy H., Rashed H., and Rached I, "The impacts of SLR on Egypt," 45 th SOCARP Congress 2009 M. EL-RAEY, KR. DEWIDAR AND M. EL-HATTAB, "Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change," Springer, Vol.4, no.3, p343-361, September 1999. Ben Haj, S., Cebrian, D., Limam, A., Grimes, et al. "Vulnerability and impacts of climate change on marine and coastal biological diversity in the Mediterranean, Arab Countries" UNEP, Tunis, 2009. 1 "Natural Protectorates Description," Ministry of Environment (MoE), Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), Available at: www.eeaa.gov.eg/enus/topics/nature/protectorates/protectoratesdescription.aspx./ - (Accessed: 16.10.2015). T. J. Done, "Phase shifts in coral reef communities and their ecological significance," Springer Link, Vol. 247, No. 1, pp. 121-132, November 1992. H. El-Askary, S. H. Abd El-Mawla, J. Li, M. M. El-Hattab & M. El-Raey, "Change detection of coral reef habitat using Landsat-5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI data in the Red Sea (Hurghada, Egypt)," International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 2327-2346, 2014. "Egypt tourism numbers to fall less than feared," Reuters Africa, October 2009 - Available at: http://www.af.reuters.com/article/investingNews/idAFJOE59J0PG20091020?sp=true (Accessed on: 16.07.2015). "Egypt’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change And Disaster Risk Reduction," the Egyptian cabinet information and decision support center, December 2011. "Environment and development in coastal regions and in small islands", International Workshop on Submarine Archaeology and Coastal Management. Available at: www.unesco.org/csi/pub/papers2/alex7.htm. (Accessed: 15.07.2015) Ma Bele´n Go´mez Martı´n, "WEATHER, CLIMATE AND TOURISM A Geographical Perspective," Elsevier, Barcelona, Spain, 2005.http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Egypt/1/Egyptian%20INDC.pdf Egypt’s first National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on June 1999, EEAA - Available on: http://www.unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/egync1.pdf/ (Accessed: 24.08.2016) 1 Egypt’s Second Nation Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on May 2010, EEAA and UNDP, 2010 - Available on: http://www.unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/egync2.pdf/ (Accessed: 08.08.2016) Egypt’s Third Nation Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on June 2014, EEAA and UNDP, 2014 - Available on: http://www.eg.undp.org/content/dam/egypt/docs/Environment%20and%20Energy/Signed%20TNC%20Project%20Document. pdf/. (Accessed: 24.08.2016) Egypt’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction (NSACCDRR), 2011- available at: http://cairoclimatetalks.net/sites/default/files/Adaptation%20Strategy%20-%20Final%20-%20E.pdf (Accessed: 24.08.2016) http://www.egyptictindicators.gov.eg/en/Pages/default33.aspx/ Swiss Economic Cooperation and Development, Egypt Country Strategy 2013-2016 - available at: www.secocooperation.admin.ch/laender/.../index.html?lang/ Climate Change Legislation in Egypt: The 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study - A Review of Climate Change Legislation in 99 Countries, 2015, http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/EGYPT.pdf (Accessed: 25.08.2016) http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/en-us/mediacenter/reports/guidelines.aspx/ - (Accessed: 10.08.2016) 215

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    This project is funded by the Europ

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    EuropeAid/132630/C/SER/Multi CLEANE

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    Table of contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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    4. CLIMATE DATA AND CLIMATE CHANGE

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    List of tables TABLE 1: EMISSION FA

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    Section III: Actions Planned This s

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    capacities under construction, resu

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    5 million magnetic ballasts with di

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    To mobilize all stakeholders in and

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    9. Coordinate with the government o

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    technical support of CES-MED, if re

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    - Information on national energy po

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    Section II: Baseline Emission Inven

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    Figure 2: Considered themes in BEI

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    1.3.2.1 Residential buildings In th

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    Volume Energy equivalent Diesel con

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    Air transport was estimated from th

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    average. Although, this figure stil

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    Energy consumption in GWh 12.0 10.0

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    GHG emissions in tCO 2eq/year in 20

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    Governorate of the Red Sea in 2015

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    and climate transition, • It will

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    temperature control system. There i

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    Even if LED lamps cost far more (hi

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    4.1.3.4 Budget These figures are ro

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    4.1.6. Awareness campaign 4.1.6.1 C

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    of the Red Sea, would implement a S

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    sustainable and green tourism throu

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    power air compressors for diving ac

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    To design and implement an adequate

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    Energy in MWh/year Situation in 201

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    4.3.3. Biogas As previously mention

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    Section IV: Climate Adaptation Plan

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    populated cities and suburbs). In t

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    Severe floods hit Alexandria, 24th

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    scenario is estimated to be about 1

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    place in many cities such as Alexan

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    • Third National Communication on

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    − Develop a database for all chan

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    a. Maximum & Minimum temperature Fe

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    Temperature 4.2.1. Main climate tre

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    The following figures present the s

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    and August 2017. More specifically:

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    The Governorate of the Red Sea (mun

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    Receptors Extreme weather event - A

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    Infrastructure Receptors Social Ext

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    Receptors Extreme weather event Pot

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    Receptors Extreme weather event Pot

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    Sea level rise* Significantly fewer

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    Sea level rise* Significantly fewer

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    een created to mitigate and evaluat

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    6.2.2.2 Coastal Zones Adaptation op

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    • Alert /Communication actions: T

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    Controlled flood management zones h

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    Alert / Communication Educational T

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    Technical Utilization of drip irrig

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    tourists’ transports that current

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    in particular and in the Governorat

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    3. Organization and procedures Form

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    - European Commission (EC), - Europ

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    2. City of Hurghada (Governorate of

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    - Climate Change Risk Management Pr

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    • Ministry of Tourism (MoTrm) - r

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    Component 4 It will assess costs of

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    6. Assumptions and risks - The key

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    3. City of Hurghada (Governorate of

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    - Second National Communication on

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    Administrative and coordination pro

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    The action plans (stage A) to suppl

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    converting Hotels and resorts by na

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    - Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Dev

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    - Egypt’s Sustainable Development

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    - Turn off electric equipment at th

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    - Municipality and Governorate - Go

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    Return on Investment (draft calcula

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    5. City of Hurghada - Governorate o

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    - Public Private Partnership - PPP

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    Administrative and coordination pro

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    design and implement an adequate en

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    and ensure the implementation of th

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    - Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (A

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    Renewable energy at the city of Hur

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  • Page 221 and 222: protection, Promote green tourism i
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