2 weeks ago

020318_Hurghada SECAP_FINAL

could be used to feed in

could be used to feed in bio-digesters that would produce biogas to be used in buses or cars, thus reducing air pollution and GHG emissions. Such transition is not obvious for tourism operators who have always been working in a classical way (BaU), consuming cheap energy as if it would always be without any adverse consequences. To shift behaviour and speed up the shift, the Governorate of Red Sea should elaborate on its Sustainable and Green Tourism Plan (SGTP) to provide advice to tourism operators willing to invest in energy efficiency and renewable energy and propose energy audits to any resort and hotel willing to make the necessary investments to contribute to the SECAP adopted in the City of Hurghada. The SGTP could also set up a revolving fund that would help resorts and hotels doing the right choice, for example through providing loans at an attractive rate as an incentive to support the transition. Hotels and resorts having benefited from subsidies or loans from the fund, would be invited to replenish this fund with a contribution proportionate to the savings obtained through refurbishment operations. The revolving fund could also support investments in developing renewable energy production (Solar water heaters and PVs). Indeed, hotels and resorts need electricity for specific uses (lighting, elevators, and ventilation) and heat (or cold) (sanitary water, swimming pools, air conditioning). Such energy services can easily be covered by renewable sources, particularly solar energy. The SGT plan to connect hotels and resorts from the Northern part of the City to the natural gas grid could be a distraction from the real priorities: improve efficiency and develop renewable energies. Connection to the natural gas grid only makes sense if gas is seen as a complementary source to renewable energy production. Nowadays, there are technical innovations that provide heat or cold from solar energy (without using electricity) and the City of Hurghada could be a platform to promote such innovations in Egypt and more widely in the Middle East. Cruise ships and diving boats Like for hotels and resorts, there are significant margins for improvement in energy efficiency of diving and cruise boats. Different options could be combined to promote more efficient diving trips and sea tours: - Optimize occupancy on board: to avoid having two boats leaving harbour half empty and instead regroup visitors on one boat, more efficiently used for the day. - Upgrade engines’ performance and reduce pollution by converting engines from diesel to natural gas. - Cover basic on-board functions (air cooling, food refrigeration, lighting, etc.) with solar PV. - Improve waste management on board. - Raise awareness on marine life and coral reef protection. Occupancy on cruise and diving boats is probably more complex to organize. However, the City of Hurghada can facilitate a negotiation among operators to promote different models of planning diving cruises with the objective of reaching the optimum energy consumption per visitor on board (more tourist on a boat meaning less energy consumption per capita, and a better benefit for diving boats’ operators). Converting boat engines from diesel to gas is not that complex and costs rank from US $6,000 to 20,000 for large boats. Lower costs of gas allow for a good return on investment. Hence the City of Hurghada should set up a revolving fund for boat engines conversion, with some incentives for the early adopters and a structural investment for refuelling stations in the harbour. The very same revolving fund should allow investments on solar PVs to equip boats. Such devices will cover basic needs on board (air cooling, food refrigeration, lighting, etc.) avoiding the use of fossil fuels. As mentioned earlier, it is also necessary to improve waste management on board of boats to avoid marine pollution. Collecting waste on the dock, will also allow separating bio-waste that could be then processed in bio-digesters to produce biogas (in connection with the waste separation in hotels and resorts). The fleet improvement programme should extend to redesigning the docks to make them a demonstrative example of what a “green harbour” on the Hurghada seashore could be. Obviously, the new plans should promote solar PV equipment as a major source of renewable energy supply for all activities along the docks. Hence, renewable energy will supply diving boats avoiding unnecessary use of diesel motors when they are not sailing. Such equipment will also 54

power air compressors for diving activities. Expected results Assumptions: - Awareness raising and improved management of energy could easily result in a 10% reduction of energy consumption in hotels, resorts and diving centres, - Refurbishment in hotels and resorts could lead to 30% energy consumption reduction (50% hotels engaged achieving 60% cuts), - Awareness raising and improved management of diving and cruise boats’ occupancy could lead to a 10% cut in energy consumption, - On the longer term, a fleet refurbishment programme (switching from diesel to gas) would result in a 50 % cut in energy consumption from boats, - Efficiency in lighting and renewable energy in harbour and diving centres could lead to 20% electricity consumption reduction. Energy in MWh/year Situation in 2015 Cut expected in 2030 Situation in 2030 GHG in tCO 2eq/year Energy GHG Energy GHG GHG (BAU) Cut / BAU Tourism 1,196,294 490,915 - 439,958 - 218,077 633,280 34 % Awareness raising (hotels & resorts) (10%) 1,114,026 - 111,402 - 46,084 Hotel & resort refurbishment 1,002,624* - 300,787 - 164,564 Awareness raising and occupancy optimisation in diving boats 50,489 - 5,049 - 1,340 Diving boats refurbishment** 45,440 - 22,720 - 6,089 Efficiency and renewable energy in harbour pm pm * Overall energy consumption of hotels after 10% cut due to awareness raising efforts ** 50% after all efforts made on efficiency due to awareness Budget These figures are rough estimates of budget required per action for the period 2018-2030 and ROI. Awareness raising on the two targets (hotels, diving centres & boats) 100,000 € 1 year Diving boats refurbishment 5,000,000 € 2 to 3 years Hotel and resort refurbishment (revolving fund) 10,000,000 € 2 to 3 years 4.2.3. Residential buildings Current situation The residential building sector is the 3 rd largest energy consumer with 441 GWh/year, or 12% of the total energy consumed in the city (3,338 GWh Final Energy/year as of the 2015 reference). It is also one of the key sectors to be addressed, as it is also third in GHG emissions of 215 kteqCO2/year or 16 % of the total emissions of energy consumption (1,338 k teqCO 2/year). With a population of 279,684 persons (2015), the City of Hurghada - Governorate of Red Sea had 56,341 house owners in 2015 and 60% of these residential houses are connected to the natural gas grid; however, the natural gas grid is still under development and designed to reach a connection rate of 80% by end of 2017. 55

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