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020318_Hurghada SECAP_FINAL

Direct impact •

Direct impact • Temperature • Heat waves • Rain falls patterns • Storms • Floods • Droughts Indirect impact • Agricultural • Food security • Ecosystems • Water • Coastal zones • Energy • Forests • Desert • Tourism • Health • Fishery Figure 14: Classification of climate change impacts on cities One of the major impacts in Egypt is desertification, which is already threatening many continents, namely: Africa, Asia and Latin America 12 . Desertification means that sand encroachment to vegetation causes land loss, land degradation and difficulty in vegetation growth, especially to farmland adjacent to desert. Desertification is already affecting one quarter of the total land surface of the globe 13 . It occurs due to drought caused by climatic variations, mainly high temperatures and irregular rainfall 14 . This is a typical climatic characteristic of the city of Hurghada, Governorate of Red Sea, thus increased pest and disease due to high temperatures in winter will be a suitable weather for mosquitoes to attack crops in spring that threat food security 15 On the national scale, Egypt is facing major challenges as a result of CC impacts among all sectors that reflect on the built environment, which ranked as the most exposed and vulnerable sector, as a result of sea level rise (SLR) in the coastal areas, whereas in non-coastal areas such as the city of Hurghada, global warming would be a great impact on the thermal comfort, air and water quality as well as pressure on the energy sector. Although Egypt emits about 1% of the world’s GHG emissions, it is one of the developing countries vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. The following pictures show climate change impacts in Egypt in the past years in several cities such as: Alexandria, Aswan, Hurghada and the Red Sea area (Figure 15). 12 Alberto Marini, Mohamed Talbi, Desertification and Risk Analysis Using High and Medium Resolution Satellite Data: Training Workshop on Mapping Desertification, Springer Science & Business Media, 2008, p. 274. 13 Olagunju, Temidayo Ebenezer. Ecology and Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria., "Drought, desertification and the Nigerian environment," academic journals, Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment., vol. 7, pp. 196-209, July, 2015. 14 UNESCO, "What is desertification? Objective: Introduce the phenomenon of desertification," Available at: www.unesco.org/mab/doc/ekocd/chapter1.html - (Accessed on July 15, 2017). 15 E.C. OERKE, Institute for Plant Diseases, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 9, D-53315 Bonn, Germany, "Crop losses to pests," The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. Volume 144, no. Issue 01, pp. pp 31-43, February 2006. 66

Severe floods hit Alexandria, 24th Oct 2015 and 2016 resulting from climate change impacts a. Discourling of river Nile, Cairo b. Destruction by floods c. Vehicles sub-merged in floods Severe floods hit Ras Ghareb, Governorate of the Red Sea, Nov. 1, 2016 – climate change risks Stormy floods in Sinai Stormy floods in Taba Stormy floods in Aswan Stormy floods in Sinai, the Red Sea and Aswan, Egypt, May 2014 Snow sever storm and cold spell, Cairo-Egypt, 19 th December 2013 Figure 15: Classification Climate change impacts on Cities - Egypt 2.2.1. Climate Change impacts – Urban areas The impact of CC on urban areas is witnessed in temperature rise that led to increasing the Heat Island Effect (HIE), thus increase air pollution in urban areas. The higher the temperatures are, the more ozone pollution on ground level that exacerbates diseases such as asthma and breathing difficulties even in healthy individuals. Heat stress affects public health, especially children, the elderly and respiratory patients and causes mortalities 16 . In line with the above, an extraordinary heat wave hit Egypt, between the 9 th and 18 th of August 2015, and resulted in 200 people suffering from heat stress and being hospitalised; besides this, 98 elderly were reported dead 17 18 . Since 16 Elizabeth Martin Perera and Todd Sanford, "Climate Change and Your Health: Rising Temperatures, Worsening Ozone Pollution," Union of Concerned Scientists, June 2011. 17 Egyptian Weather forecast Centre, (EWFC) 18 Ministry of Health report, August 17, 2015 67

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