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020318_Hurghada SECAP_FINAL

• The commitments in

• The commitments in place at the national level within the international environment (UNFCCC) and the agreements that have been signed for CC, • The national strategy, its goals and commitments, etc., and • The regional strategy, if applicable, based on the national one, and the specificities the region faces. 3.1. The commitments in place at the national level The Egyptian Government responded early to climate change and signed the following environmental agreements, namely: • Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), 1992, • Kyoto Protocol, 1999, and • Paris Agreement - new global climate change agreement, December 2015. On December 12, 2015, the Paris Climate Change Agreement was approved by the 196 Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention of the Climate Change (UNFCCC) at COP21 in Paris - France. Egypt signed the Paris Climate Agreement on the 22 nd of April 2016 at a signature ceremony in Paris where 175 participated but has not yet ratified it. “We respect the experience of others, but we will do it our way. We will ask for your support, but we will look after the well-being of the Egyptian people,” Minister of Environment declared. On November 11, 2015 Egypt submitted its new climate action plan to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) comes in advance of COP21. The Paris agreement already entered into force, empowering all countries to prevent average global temperatures rising above 2 degrees Celsius and to reap the many opportunities that arise from a necessary global transformation to clean and sustainable development. Egypt’s INDCs were developed in accordance with Decisions 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20 of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The INDCs set a series of measures intended to be applied by the country to face climate change in terms of adaptation (to climate change impacts) and mitigation (reducing GHG emissions). It includes the following three main elements: • National circumstances that address general economic conditions, including economic and population growth rates, major sustainable development goals (SDGs), and political circumstances, • National efforts implemented to combat climate change in Egypt, in terms of treating impacts in different sectors (agriculture, water resources, coastal zones, etc.) or efforts made to reduce GHGs emissions in different sectors (energy, transportation, industry, etc.), and • Required implementation mechanisms to achieve the objectives of the plan (funding, capacity building, and technology transfer) 45 . 3.1.1. The national strategy, its goals and commitments and sectors affected In 2007, Egypt established its National Committee on Climate Change's decision in order to develop strategies and policies to deal with CC. As a result, several strategies and policies have been developed, mostly with the support of international donors, including: • Initial National Communication on Climate Change, Egypt, 1999 – MoEnv and EEAA 46 • Second National Communication on Climate change, Egypt, 2010 – EEAA and UNDP 47 45 http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Egypt/1/Egyptian%20INDC.pdf 46 Egypt’s first National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on June 1999, EEAA - Available on: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/egync1.pdf/ (Accessed: 24.08.2016) 47 Egypt’s Second Nation Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on May 2010, EEAA and UNDP, 2010 - Available on: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/egync2.pdf/ 72

• Third National Communication on Climate change, Egypt, 2014 – EEAA and UNDP 48. • National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction 2011, (NSACCDRR) – UNDP 49 • National Air Quality Policy 2015, NAQP – UNEP 50 • Egypt’s Indicators Development, and • National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) 2015 – GIZ. The Egyptian Cabinet – Information and Decision Support Centre (IDSC) - in collaboration with the UNDP developed Egypt’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction (NSACCDRR) in December 2011. The NSACCDRR’s main objective is to increase the flexibility of the Egyptian community when dealing with the risks and disasters that might be caused by climate change and its impact on different sectors and activities. It also aims to strengthen the capacity to absorb and reduce the risks and disasters to be caused by such changes. The Economic Cooperation and Development Division (SECO) of the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs from Switzerland has developed measures based on collaboration with the Egyptian government, to address the strategic objective No.3: Support basic environmental infrastructure: • Contribute with technology and know-how transfer to improve the infrastructure with a positive effect on the environment, the climate and employment, • Sectorial activities including water supply, wastewater treatment, waste management (solid and liquid toxic waste), renewable energy and energy efficiency, and urban sustainability, • Contribute to better corporate governance and financial sustainability in the management of investment projects and the operation and maintenance of public infrastructure, • Adhere to policy dialogue on provision of infrastructure jointly with other donors, and • Creation of new/ higher quality jobs in the area of environmental and RES 51 . In 2008, Climate Change Risk Management Programme (CCRMP) was established as a result of a partnership between Egypt and the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDGAF). The three main objectives of CCRMP are to: • Integrate GHG mitigation into national policy and investment frameworks; • Increase CC adaptation capacities, particularly in agriculture and water; and • Raise awareness regarding the impacts of climate change 52 . Key achievements that came out of this joint programme are to successfully assist in and support the establishment of the following units and capacity building: a. Clean Development Mechanism Awareness and Promotion Unit (CDMAPU), b. Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) that advises the Cabinet on energy efficiency, 48 Egypt’s Third Nation Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on June 2014, EEAA and UNDP, 2014 - Available on: http://www.eg.undp.org/content/dam/egypt/docs/Environment%20and%20Energy/Signed%20TNC%20Project%20Document.pdf/ (Accessed: 24.08.2016) 49 Egypt’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction (NSACCDRR), 2011- available at: http://cairoclimatetalks.net/sites/default/files/Adaptation%20Strategy%20-%20Final%20-%20E.pdf (Accessed: 24.08.2016) 50 http://www.egyptictindicators.gov.eg/en/Pages/default33.aspx/ 51 Swiss Economic Cooperation and Development, Egypt Country Strategy 2013-2016 - available at: www.secocooperation.admin.ch/laender/.../index.html?lang 52 Climate Change Legislation in Egypt: The 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study - A Review of Climate Change Legislation in 99 Countries, 2015, http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/EGYPT.pdf (Accessed: 25.08.2016) 73

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