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020318_Hurghada SECAP_FINAL

c. The MoWRI’s

c. The MoWRI’s capabilities to forecast climate change scenarios, and d. The irrigation research and climate change crop simulation activities of the Ministry of Acclamation of Land Resources (MALR) 51 . In 2010, Egypt published, in response to the SNC to UNFCCC a National Environmental, Economic and Development Study (NEEDS) for CC which outlines the financial and institutional needs for implementing prospective and on-going adaptation and mitigation measures. This study recognizes that the next phases of CC planning should include a National Action Plan for Adaptation (NAPA) and National Low Carbon Economy Plan (NLCEP). The NEEDS report highlights the urgency for developing a GHG monitoring system that aggregates and disseminates information about GHG emissions across sectors. In 2014, the Ministry of Environment (MoEnv) signed an agreement with the Italian counterpart to transform El-Gouna City into the first carbon-neutral city in Africa 51 . In addition, the UNEP developed the National Strategy Study entitled: ‘Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy National Study (EERENS), which was developed in 2007 as part of both the Mediterranean and National Strategies for Sustainable Development under Priority Field of Action 2: Energy and Climate Change 53 . The key players of this strategy study are the "Plan Bleu" - a regional activity centre of the UNEP/MAP (Mediterranean Action Plan), created, funded and steered by EC 54. As far as the CC risks are concerned, Africa is the most vulnerable continent globally, where Egypt is located. 3.1.2. Regional strategy and the specificities the region faces The Governorate of the Red Sea put forward a strategy to address climate change risks and adaptation. Such strategy is based on the National Strategy on climate change. Its main focus is to adapt and reduce risks and disasters caused by climate change, increase awareness of the Governorate’s staff and enhance its participation aligning with Hurghada City’s goals to become the centre of culture and tourism. This strategy will have to be regularly updated due to the possibility of unpredictable changes in climate. The Governorate of the Red Sea road map includes: strategic objectives, strategic components, and actions. These are as follows: Strategic objectives: − Define all Climate Change risks for all sectors, − Increase the sustainability issues in all sectors, − Reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, − Promote renewable energy sources, − Involve all Governorate’s and municipality’s staff in the effort to transform the city and governorate to be green and sustainable, and − Make the infrastructure of the city of Hurghada and Governorate of Red Sea resilient and a world-class tourism destination, − Raise awareness and capacity building on climate change risks, impacts, and adaptation, and − Regular assessment and evaluation of the strategy and current situation. Strategic components: − Increase the communication with all stakeholders and Governorate departments and directorates of all ministries operating in Hurghada. − Built a vertical communication mechanism to response to extreme events and disasters. − Promote sustainability and sustainable energy actions in all the Governorate’s institutions and Municipal departments to encounter CC risks. 53 http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/en-us/mediacenter/reports/guidelines.aspx/ (Accessed: 10.08.2016) Guidelines of Principles and Procedures for Environmental Impact Assessment, 2nd Edition, Ministry of Environment, EEAA, January 2009: http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/portals/0/eeaaReports/N-EIA/English_EIA_guidelines.pdf/ (Accessed: 09.08.2016) 54 http://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/09/RESILIENCE-Resilient-Cities-Acceleration-Initiative.pdf 74

− Develop a database for all changes in the climate in coordination with the National Weather Authority and Hurghada international airport. Strategic Actions − Built an observatory in the Hurghada local municipality to monitor the pattern of rainfall and temperature increases and rain fall patterns, − Give alerts on severe events before happening in the Governorate, − Construct water barriers in storm areas to collect storms upon occurring to lessen floods impacts, − Install capacity of about 300 kWp solar panels that generate electricity from renewable energy sources to feed in four Governorate buildings in the city of Hurghada, and − Street lighting change from conventional lighting to LED lighting that save about 80% of the energy consumption. 4. Climate data and Climate Change projections 4.1. Climate overview in Hurghada The climate in Egypt is generally hot in summer and cold in winter but is known for its very low humidity. The annual mean temperatures increase from around 20°C on the Mediterranean coastline to around 24°C on the Red Sea coastline, with a difference of 5°C. It is 25°C in Cairo (the capital) and 26°C further south in Luxor and Aswan, with a seasonal variation of about ±7°C. The typical daytime maxima in mid-summer ranges from 30°C in Alexandria and to 41°C in Aswan (Upper Egypt); while the corresponding temperature’s north-south range in mid-winter daytime maxima is ranging from 18°C to 23°C. This makes even winter day-times in the south pleasantly warm and sunny, with cool nights, as further north. On the northern coastal strip, the winter cyclonic disturbances moving eastwards along the Mediterranean Sea bring some significant rainfall and, even at Alexandria on the coast, the total annual rainfall averages are only 196 mm. In Cairo (160km inland), the average annual rainfall is reduced to 25 mm and it is reduced further to only 5 mm at Hurghada on the Red Sea coast and less than 2 mm in Luxor and Aswan. However, in central and southern Egypt, several years may pass without any significant rainfall. The Governorate of the Red Sea is characterised as a desert climate, which means that the summers are long, hot, and arid, while the winters are cool and dry. There is virtually no rainfall during the year. There are only two distinct seasons in Hurghada, a hot summer and a mild winter. The average annual temperature is 22.9 °C. There is a difference of 1 mm of precipitation between the driest and wettest months. In addition, the average temperatures vary during the year by 13.7 °C. Summer – Hurghada The months of June, July, August and September are the hottest time of the year in the Governorate of Red Sea with temperatures ranging between an average high of 31 °C and 34.2 °C, nevertheless, July and August are the hottest months of the year with night time lows of between 23 °C and 24 °C. August is the warmest month of the year. The average temperature in August is 29.2 °C (Figure 16). Winter – Hurghada In winter the temperatures are very mild, and the sky is usually clear. The rains are very rare even in this season. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of 15.5 °C. Also, January is the driest month with 0.0 mm of rain. Most precipitation falls in October, with an average of 1 mm. Climate data that covers mean temperature and precipitation levels are highlighted in Figure 16. 75

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