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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

Training Teachers for E-Learning FLexIBLe LIFeLong LeArnIng As A modeL For teAcher trAInIng Once stated the necessity of a broader training model for teachers, even in formal educational contexts, it is to be taken into consideration which kind of training programme is to be developed. As a matter of fact, many training courses are regularly offered to teacher staff by the Educational Departments in every European country. The local peculiarities of this offer make it difficult to establish a regular standard within the European Union and to design a proper common policy in teacher training. A common background is given by the Common European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications (European Commission, 2005), where the European Union views the role of teachers and their lifelong learning and career development as key priorities. Teachers should be equipped to respond to the evolving challenges of the knowledge society, participate actively in it, and prepare learners to be autonomous lifelong learners. The key competences of teachers are set as follows. Teachers should be able to: • Work with others • Work with knowledge, technology, and information • Work with and in society To facilitate such an approach, ICTs are not only a means distribute training course for teachers at service, but also the logical environment where these three dimensions of the key competences are to be developed and fulfilled. A proper use of ICT empowers the abilities needed for collaborative work, as well as requires an autonomous use of information sources, its selection and delivery, and allows teachers to keep in touch with a steady changing society, into which their pupils are to become active citizens. The report entitled “Assessment Schemes for Teachers’ ICT Competence-A Policy Analysis,” developed for the European Union by the European Schoolnet (2005), includes some remarkable key findings: • In the future more detailed job descriptions and specialized training profiles are needed for different actors in schools to cater for a personalised training. • Training policies face the challenges to be flexible enough for short term adjustments of changing training needs and incorporating long term goals and objectives that are important for teachers to identify with. • Countries will need to think of offering new and flexible forms of training for teachers, at different times, at different places, with different means, but much more related to the concept of lifelong learning. This includes a shift in the culture of the teaching profession from a passive consumer of training courses to an active producer and organiser of its own learning process. • Training policies can only be successfully implemented and sustainable in the long term if they are part of an interlinked or integrated ICT strategy that caters for technology, pedagogy, support, organisational development, and (financial) solutions. From this point of view, e-learning solutions are an interesting approach that allows flexible forms of training, but that have to be delivered under some conditions to ensure the quality of their results. E-learning is unfortunately a very broad term, which may lead readers to think of many different learning scenarios, and therefore, it seems to be necessary to define or, at least, to set the limit of the concept for the aims of this chapter. Computer and learning are the two basic ideas that come to our minds when trying to define e- learning. Therefore, a first definition could point

Training Teachers for E-Learning out this relationship. For instance: “The delivery of a learning, training or education program by electronic means. E-learning involves the use of a computer or electronic device (e.g., a mobile phone) in some way to provide training, educational or learning material” (Stockley, 2003). Such a definition involves the delivery of instruction via CD, the Internet, or shared files on a network. It is also called computer mediated learning. It is not surprising that a new definition of e- learning is being developed, as far as a broader use of the Web has been reached. The so-called Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, 2005) enables a new definition of the concept, under the label of e-learning 2.0 (Downes, 2005; Jennings, 2005; Karrer, 2006). The interesting point of this concept is that e- learning can no longer be defined only by the use of ICT itself, but by a certain use of the ICT. It includes communication, collaborative learning, social networks, and new roles for learners and teachers. But this supposed novelty is to be tracked back to the theories that stressed the change from a transmission model of knowledge transfer, to a learner-centred or activity-centred model (Gifford & Enyedy, 1999; Reeves, 1999; Vinicini, 2001; Wilson, 1995). The conventional classroom was the natural metaphor in which many learning management systems (LMS) and, even more importantly, most learning designers and content creators, developed the learning environment, from computer aided instruction (CAI) to many online courses. They order the sequence of information and focus on the structure of the disciplinary domain. But as far as it is possible to encourage communication, interaction, and collaboration in e-learning environments, this model is to be supplied with news methods that allow achieving orchestrated interdependence and autonomy in e-learning. The new idea is well summarized by the image of a community, a virtual learning community. (Cabero, 2006; García Aretio, 2003; Hudson, 2005; Paloff & Pratt, 1999). In the most evolved development of these, we can find the virtual corelate to the community of practice, that is, “a shared domain of interest” where “members interact and learn together” and “develop a shared repertoire of resources.” In others words, it is the place where learning happens (Wenger, 1998). In this pedagogical approach, the new role of the teacher is a turning point for the development of e-learning (Kearsley, 2000). In the last years many e-learning courses have been developed at high schools, universities, and enterprises, and many lessons are to be learned from them. In the most successful experiences, the key factor is the presence of a specialized trainer who ensures the effectiveness of the Web-based learning process. This trainer is skilled and competent in interaction, communication, and knowledge building through virtual spaces. In other words, this professional is the tutor online, defined as follows by Seoane and García (in press): Tutor online is the teaching staff that follows a group of students on a part of their learning path, ensures the efficiency of teaching-to-learning process, promotes the achievement of aims and skills predicted for the academic initiative that he leads, by creating a context of collaborative and active learning, and evaluates how pre-established aims were achieved for students and for the academic intervention (quality management). Of course, the teacher staff in schools is yet far from reaching such a level of acquaintance and competence as is to be found in a proper tutor online. Nevertheless, according to the variant reality of schools and the different target learners they serve, in certain kinds of educational institutions teachers functions are getting nearer to this profile, as far as they have in their classroom an increasing variety of pupils. This is the situation of centres devoted to adult education, vocational training centres, and secondary schools providing courses to adult and young adult people who

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    RAPAD example, whereas Laurillard h

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    RAPAD Ontologically, systems philos

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    RAPAD information related processes

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    RAPAD methods and techniques accord

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    RAPAD 2. An introduction to learnin

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    RAPAD then asked to reflect on and

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    RAPAD Figure 4. A rich picture to h

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    RAPAD Again using techniques from t

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    RAPAD university preparation course

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    RAPAD The third interface is at the

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    RAPAD Knight, P.T., & Trowler, P. (

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    RAPAD AddItIonAL reAdIngs Goodyear,

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning t

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Open Source LMS Customization or ev

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    Open Source LMS Customization compa

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Haina

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning r

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning t

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning m

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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