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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

Integrating Technology and Research in Mathematics Education students to get to excellence the student’s own way, through specific opportunities to develop cognitive potential. In order to develop each student’s specific skills of, it is necessary to let the student be free to move, to choose, to plan, and to manage some suitable cognitive situations. According to this perspective, e-learning platforms allow teachers to create learning situations appropriate for each student. In this context, the teacher, who might more properly be referred to as the author, is not just a content developer, but becomes an organizer of contexts in which the content is aimed at the attainment of well-defined goals. All this requires the author to use a range of skills, from those related to teaching to the technological ones. According to Brousseau (1997), we can say that in e-learning environment the role of the author is to prepare a-didactical situations, that are situations in which attention is paid to the students and knowledge, not to the teacher. There are no specific teaching constraints, so what the learner does is not affected by any pressure by the teacher, and knowledge system is modified as a result of adaptation processes linked to the strategies performed. Individualisation is possible as far as a choice of teaching materials, such as written texts, multimedia file, interactive exercises, and so on, is made available to the learner. The learner should be given a wide range of stimuli through different sensorial channels (auditory, visual, manipulative, and so forth) for each teaching unit, in order to make easier the adjustment of the teaching style related to the learning styles of the learners. This way the student can learn any content more easily, as the teaching modalities are more suitable to the student’s cognitive styles, allowing the student to overcome some learning difficulties. According to Balacheff (2000), “learning does not occur because of one specific type of interaction, but because of the availability of all of them. One type of interaction, or one type of agent, being selected depending on the needs of the learner at the time when the interaction is looked for, as well as of the specific characteristics of the knowledge at stake.” (p. 2) Thus the learning paths can be individualised according the student’s profile, with particular reference to the skills which are being acquired and the learning style. This kind of individualisation/personalisation can be automatically realised by the platform or can be constructed by each student through the learning process. In fact for each teaching unit the student can ask the system for the list of the other teaching units regarding the same concept at stake. Moreover students can add personal annotations to the teaching units, which can be simple textual notes or video and audio files or figures. They have also a space to share resources among them. In such a way students interact with the learning material in a tri-dimensional relationship: they do not restrict themselves to receive and elaborate some objects (such as in the case of the book), but produce new learning objects starting from the ones placed at their disposal by the platform (Maragliano, 2000). Resources like Moodle’s lesson or IWT’s didactic unit may be the starting point to develop individualised or personalised learning paths. In that frame students are required to perform a test at the end of each unit or group of units in order to proceed to the next one. In case of satisfactory results each student will be automatically given access to the next unit, otherwise the student will be kept in the current unit or will be directed to a remedial unit. The questions included in the test may regard just the understanding of the text from the viewpoint of language, or the specific contents. Pros and cons of tests are more widely discussed in the “Self-Evaluation” section. In the perspective of personalisation, openended questions and reflection on “wrong” answers constitute the starting point of new problem situations the learner can deal with. Such opportunities allow “mistakes” to play a constructive educational role, as they can be productively used in the platform, in place of the (usually ineffective)

Integrating Technology and Research in Mathematics Education practice of just proposing the replication of what has already been presented. According to Perrin Glorian (1994), sometimes the mistake is indeed provoked by previous knowledge, which had its owns interests and successes, which is false or inadequate in the new context. To be aware and to analyse such kind of mistakes is a fundamental step in order to construct new knowledge. The aim is not to try to avoid any possible mistake, since they are intrinsic in the process of construction of knowledge, but rather to minimise their effects, interpreting them problematically and developing the necessary awareness. Such kind of activities involve constructive processes of problem solving, of interpretation, and conversion of representations in different semiotic systems and also metacognitive aspects, such as the method used to read and understand a text. In fact an increasing number of students seems to believe that learning means being able to repeat pieces of text, obviously with the help of some keywords, without being worried to draw at least the simplest inferences from the text. Constructive methods In mathematics education, constructive methods play a major and increasing role. An e-learning platform allows the learners to actively construct new knowledge as they interact with their environment. We are aware that some researchers adopt a more restricted definition of constructivism and they would regard some computer environments and, more generally, some ways of using ICT as inconsistent with the constructivist stance. For example, graphing a function (defined by a symbolic expression) by means of the facilities of some computer algebra system might be regarded as nonconstructive as some steps of the process are fully concealed to the learner, whereas programs explicitly computing the coordinates of a finite set of points of the graph of the function might be regarded as more suitable for a truly constructive approach. Although we understand some of the concerns of the supporters of the restricted view, through the chapter we are adopting an inclusive definition of constructivism and focus on each learner’s opportunities to interact with the environment. Within an e-learning platform the learner can freely use a range of modules to construct his or her knowledge. Modules allowing some feedback, such as Moodle’s “lesson” or “quiz” as well as suitable IWT interactive learning objects (e.g., interactive online exercise sessions or Virtual Scientific Experiments), are specially relevant from this perspective. Cooperative Learning E-learning platforms generally provide a number of activities involving peer interactions or interactions between learners and tutors. Modules such as Moodle’s “workshop,” “wiki,” or “task” or IWT classroom virtual space are generally suitable for designing activities of this kind. In this section we describe some experiences with a “workshop” module at undergraduate level. From the viewpoint of the theory of mathematics education, all of these activities can be framed within the so-called socio-cultural (or “discoursive”) approach. For more information see Kieran, Forman, and Sfard (2001). Our idea is to support the students by online, time restricted activities based on role-play, which actively engage them and induce them to face learning topics in a more critical way. It is well known that the cognitive processes induced by talking, discussing, and explaining to others the concepts to be learnt promote deeper level or higher-order thinking (Johnson & Johnson, 1987). In this framework we want to put emphasis on peer learning (Boud, Cohen, & Sampson, 1999), which is intended as the use of teaching and learning strategies in which students learn with and from each other without the immediate intervention of a teacher. It includes peer tutoring and peer mentoring. When the students in a group act as both teachers and learners we

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    RAPAD example, whereas Laurillard h

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    RAPAD Ontologically, systems philos

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    RAPAD information related processes

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    RAPAD methods and techniques accord

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    RAPAD 2. An introduction to learnin

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    RAPAD then asked to reflect on and

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    RAPAD Figure 4. A rich picture to h

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    RAPAD Again using techniques from t

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    RAPAD university preparation course

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    RAPAD The third interface is at the

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    RAPAD Knight, P.T., & Trowler, P. (

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    RAPAD AddItIonAL reAdIngs Goodyear,

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning t

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning s

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning r

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning o

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning n

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning M

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning W

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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  • Page 136 and 137: E-Learning Value and Student Experi
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  • Page 156 and 157: Integrating Technology and Research
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  • Page 172 and 173: Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito
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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Open Source LMS Customization or ev

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    Open Source LMS Customization compa

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Haina

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning r

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning t

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning m

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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