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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

xvii QuALIty In

xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before talking about quality in e-learning, one must define what we exactly mean when we refer to e- learning. The application of Web-based tools for learning purposes could be considered a simple definition of e-learning. However, a clearer e-learning definition, including a conceptualization of its modalities, is the best starting point in order to understand the quality reference framework on which we would like to develop this book. Hence, one could define e-learning as: a teaching-to-learning process aimed to obtain a set of skills and competences from students, trying to ensure the highest quality to the whole process, thanks to, mainly, the use of Web-based technologies, a set of sequenced and structured contents based upon pre-defined but flexible strategies, the interaction with the group of students and tutors, the appropriate evaluation procedures, both of learning results and the whole learning process, a collaborative working environment with space-and-time deferred presence, and finally a sum of value added technological services in order to achieve maximum interaction. It is quite common to associate adjectives like “virtual” or “distance” to “learning,” in order to build synonyms for “e-learning.” But it is important to clarify that we are not thinking about virtual learning or distance learning when we refer to e-learning, at least not necessarily. When we try to develop a quality e-learning initiative, the development of skills and knowledge is easier to demonstrate than in a traditional or presential context. So if we consider “virtual” as the opposite term of “real,” e-learning is just real and not virtual learning. But, from a philosophical point of view, virtual is “all that can induce an effect.” If we consider that e-learning is different from many other forms of “learning” because of its active approach, it is clearly “virtual”; that is to say, it has the virtuality to “create” and not only to “assume” knowledge and skills. Concerning distance learning, it’s a common mistake considering e- learning as a form of distance learning, and applying its methods and categories to e-learning the results will be really poor. This is because e-learning is not nonpresential like distance learning is. The actors in this process are present, on a different time and a different place, but their presence is verifiable, and they leave certain tracks. So e-learning is more than distance learning, and this is because of the human presence behind the technology, the net, and the computers. One of the main issues in e-learning (and of course in every learning experience, as for any product or service), is the notion of “quality.” This concept, in fact, does not belong exclusively to the universe of industry and economics. The academic world is fairly used to the need to measure certain items in order to determine quality in their learning processes. Quality in e-learning has a twofold significance. First, e-learning is associated in many discussion papers and plans with an increase in the quality of educational opportunities, ensuring that the shift to the information society is more successful. This context is named “quality through e-learning.” Second, there is a separate but associated debate about ways of improving the quality of e-learning itself; this context is called “quality for e-learning” (Ehlers, Goertz, Hildebrandt, & Pawlowski, 2005). Learning outcomes are at the heart of respondents’ understanding of quality in the field of e-learning. When we talk about quality in e-learning, we assume an implicit consensus about the term “quality.” The ISO (ISO 8402, 1986, p. 3.1) defines quality as follows: “The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.” In fact, however, “quality” means very different things to most e-learning providers. García-Peñalvo (2006) points out five factors: technology, services, evaluation/accreditation, contents, and human factor (tutoring). Harvey and Green (2000) have suggested the following set of categories: exceptionality, perfection or consistency, fitness for purpose, and adequate return. Ehlers (2004) adds a fifth category, transformation, which describes the increase in competence or ability as a result of the learning process as transformation.

xviii Matching these ideas, we can define quality in e-learning as: the effective acquisition of a suit of skills, knowledge and competences by students, by means of developing appropriate learning contents given with a sum of efficient Web tools supported via a net of value-added services, whose process—from content developing to the acquisition of competences and the analysis of the whole intervention—is ensured by an exhaustive and personalized evaluation and certification process, and it is monitored by a human team practicing a strong and integral tutorial presence through the whole teaching-to-learning process. orgAnIzAtIon oF the Book In a few words, the idea behind this book is that a quality e-learning process is much more than technology. Technical issues will have an important place in this book, of course, but the whole question must be considered within other issues such as pedagogical, methodological, tutorial, evaluation, communication, strategic, and so on. Advances in E-Learning: Experiences and Methodologies is addressed to any scholar, technical, academic, or manager that could play a role in the field of e-learning, so the public is extremely heterogeneous. In fact, it is difficult to determine a field of knowing or activity, because any field and any professional role could be potentially interested on e-learning because of its enormous capabilities applicable to institutions, schools, universities, enterprises, associations, and so forth. Above all, it will not give a restricted vision about e-learning, but a multidisciplinary, rich, and complete analysis of the different issues involved, intending to become a reference on e-learning literature because the different issues will not be studied as separate matters, but any question related to e-learning studied in this book will be pointed to get the highest quality in e-learning activities. In fact, the book is organized into nineteen chapters. A brief description of each of the chapters follows: In Chapter I, Ray Webster presents RAPAD, a reflective and participatory methodology for e-learning and lifelong learning. It is a proposal of an adaptive method where students can participate with peers, developers, teachers, and trainers to think about their learning, discuss it, and apply their thoughts to the design and development of Web sites which can serve as Personalized E-Learning Environments (PELE), promoting a deep understanding of learning on a metacognitive and personal level. Chapter II introduces some ideas of the German philosopher Martin Heidegger and how they can be applied to e-learning design. This approach argues that practice must be the center of knowledge creation, which in the case of professional and corporate education is a real work situation. The chapter has been written by one of the most renowned e-learning consultants in the world, Dr. Sergio Vásquez. Following with the philosophical approaches, Chapter III by professors Seoane-Pardo and García-Peñalvo, outlines the background concepts in order to construct a human-centered methodology for online training. This chapter analyzes in a critical way the constructivism paradigm, stating that this framework is not a method and explaining the problems that are derived from this confusion. Chapter IV, by Angelica Rísquez, addresses the issue of mentoring in the online teaching as a qualitatively different concept from its traditional face-to-face version, and how the relationship between mentor and mentee is modified by technology in unique and definitive ways. The chapter introduces a set of best practices on design, implementation, and evaluation of e-mentoring programs. In Chapter V, Dr. Olga Díez deals with the issue of lifelong learning and describes an experience in teacher training for e-learning in the field of adult education. The chapter discusses the balance between mere ICT skills and pedagogical competences. The author argues that the learning design should always

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning W

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Open Source LMS Customization or ev

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    Open Source LMS Customization compa

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Haina

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning r

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning t

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning m

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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