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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is also being extensively used as a tool to allow a more direct and quick communication with readers, especially in the cases where journalists cover the news in the exact place where they happen as, for example, war reporters. Moreover, some citizens are already using the blogosphere as political space. The blog must not be a simple electoral propaganda element. Currently, politicians use blogs in order to talk about general subjects, transmit their own ideas, explain their activity, inform about their responsibility areas, listen to and receive citizens’ opinions, and share knowledge. On the other hand, Web 2.0 facilitates a change in the way people interact online, so that a lot of daily activities are being affected, even some that have not surrendered so far, changing habits strongly established. An interesting example is the use of the blog as a public personal diary. e-LeArnIng 2.0 reAches cLAssrooms How can the concepts of Web 2.0 be transferred to e-learning? This is something that the e-learning community is wondering at the moment. As well as Web 2.0 is not a completely defined context but a constantly developing environment instead, so is E-Learning 2.0. Regarding collaboration and information sharing, Web 2.0 gives users an experience that is richer and more dynamic than the traditional static Web pages, which were generated by individuals or closed groups. In fact, one of the major components of the Web 2.0 movement is the social software. The idea dates as far back as the 1960s and JCR Licklider’s thoughts on using networked computing to connect people in order to boost their knowledge and learning ability (Alexander, 2006). Social software enables users to rendezvous, connect or collaborate through computer-mediated communication and to form online communities. Broadly conceived, Web-based social software could encompass older media, but some would restrict its meaning to more recent phenomena such as blogs and wikis (as defined in Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_software). Social revolution is being even more important and extraordinary than the technological revolution. Maybe the most visible aspect of this revolution is the use of tools such as blogs or wikis that are contributing to change from a Read Web to the Read/Write Web that Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the HTML, envisioned. In the context of education, this trend will transform the way we have taught so far. Learners will not only learn, but they will also interact and share knowledge since they count with tools that will allow them to do it easily. The process of producing Web contents and, therefore, e-learning materials, can be started and developed almost without any type of technical knowledge and without an excessive time investment. This fact makes the launching of e-learning experiences an easier task and lets the teacher to remain a teacher and does not oblige him to become an expert in information and communication technologies (ICT). According to Wikipedia, the momentum in the area of e-learning is based on the confluence of several important trends: • Dramatically lower effort to compose e- learning solutions based on Web 2.0 technologies and tools • Demand in corporate settings for training that requires time and engages learners in the process over a course of time • Recognition in e-learning of the importance of blended learning • The trend toward student centred design • The theory of connectivism (Siemens, 2005) • Free-Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) and open access • Educational blogging

E-Learning 2.0 Putting all this together, we could talk of E- Learning 2.0 as the learning community that uses active ICT-based collaboration and communication as the main base of the learning process. According to O’Reilly (2005), “there is still a huge amount of disagreement about just what Web 2.0 means, with some people decrying it as a meaningless marketing buzzword, and others accepting it as the new conventional wisdom.” In our opinion, Web 2.0 is not really new, but it is a new term successfully used to refer to the recent changes experimented by the Web that, with more than 237 million citations in Google in October of 2006, has clearly taken hold. A similar discussion could take place about E-Learning 2.0: is it really a different scenario for e-learning? There are very critical opinions. For example Jennings (2005) states that E-Learning 2.0 is a rhetorical manoeuvre by e-learning suppliers and consultants to distance themselves from the failures of the first wave of e-learning, or the bastard neologism offspring of e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies. Regarding the definition of E-Learning 2.0, an interesting discussion has taken place in the EdNA (Australia) groups on social networking: philosophy and pedagogy. In this context, FitzGerald (2006) discusses whether Web 2.0 is matched with E-Learning 2.0: • E-Learning 1.0 was static packaged content developed by content developers such as CDROMs and courseware. It had little true interactivity and learner input and very little (if any) contact with a tutor. • E-Learning 1.5 is best represented by Learner Management Systems (LMS). Some packaged content and some provided by the teacher. There is more interaction with a teacher and some with peers (through forums and chat). • E-Learning 2.0 will follow a student-centred model and will be centred on the personal learning environments (PLE) using social software. Students generate and share content. They interact not only with teachers and their peers, but with anyone in the world they can learn from. Elsewhere FitzGerald (2006) states: The irony of all this is that we are returning to the way things were before modern schools were invented. It used to be that learning occurred within, and supported by, the community. After schools were developed students were removed from the community into the mainly artificial environment of the classroom where they were expected to learn content divorced from context. As Downes says, “there is nothing more virtual than the classroom! Just think how students learn foreign languages and consider how teachers try to recreate authentic France in their classrooms” (Blamire, 2006). E-learning as we know it has been around for 10 years or so. During that time, it has emerged from being a radical idea—the effectiveness of which was yet to be proven—to something that is widely regarded as mainstream. It is the core to numerous business plans and a service offered by most colleges and universities. And now, e- learning is evolving with the World Wide Web as a whole and it is changing to a degree significant enough to warrant a new name: E-Learning 2.0 (Downes, 2005b). mEThoDoLoGiES, TooLS, anD chALLenges In e-LeArnIng 2.0 Once the technology and tools are available, the main emphasis has to be made on the methodology to be used in order to design and implement the new learning strategies and procedures, taking into account the scenarios and roles of the different agents that take part in the learning 0

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    RAPAD example, whereas Laurillard h

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    RAPAD Ontologically, systems philos

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    RAPAD information related processes

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    RAPAD methods and techniques accord

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    RAPAD 2. An introduction to learnin

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    RAPAD then asked to reflect on and

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    RAPAD Figure 4. A rich picture to h

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    RAPAD Again using techniques from t

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    RAPAD university preparation course

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    RAPAD The third interface is at the

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    RAPAD Knight, P.T., & Trowler, P. (

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    RAPAD AddItIonAL reAdIngs Goodyear,

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning t

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning s

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning r

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning o

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning n

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning M

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning W

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning t

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning m

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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