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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is important to show that E-Learning 2.0 is a lot more than blogs, wikis, and so forth. Teachers can create their own tools based on constant communication and collaboration, so that they can also contribute to define E-Learning 2.0. As an example, we have developed the QUEST system (Verdú, Regueras, Verdú, Pérez, & de Castro, 2006). This tool presents both individual and collaborative environments in which intellectual challenges are proposed by teachers or students, as in a competition, which must be solved in a time-constrained way. The scores obtained make up a league-like classification from which the final grade is taken. recommendAtIons And Future trends In our opinion, e-learning is constantly evolving, and, currently, E-Learning 2.0 should be regarded as the target scenario. However, it is difficult to identify the future trends in E-Learning 2.0, as E- Learning 2.0 itself must be considered a trend. As O’Hear (2005) explains, the early promise of e-learning—that of empowerment—has not been fully realized. For many people the experience of e-learning has been no more than a hand-out published online, coupled with a simple multiple-choice quiz. However by using Web 2.0 tools, e-learning has the potential to become more personal, social and flexible. Traditional e-learning approaches have been based on cumbersome (and often expensive) virtual learning environments, which tend to be structured around courses, timetables, and testing. In contrast, E-Learning 2.0 (as coined by Stephen Downes) takes a “small pieces, loosely joined” approach that combines the use of discrete but complementary tools and Web services—such as blogs, wikis, and other social software—to support the creation of ad-hoc learning communities (O’Hear, 2006). According to these ideas, the future trends and targets of e-learning, that is, E-Learning 2.0, include customization, flexibility, and networking. Customization can be defined as the capacity to adapt to the situation of each individual and not the other way around. Customization, in terms of tools, methodologies, and contents, is an important element. The learning experience must be personalized and tailored to the characteristics of each scenario. There is also a need for an increased focus on the fulfilment of customer needs. It makes sense to take personality differences into account when designing an education system (Schank, 2002). In this sense, Freund and Piotrowski (2003) states that the use of e-learning and the mass customization concept will help to make a given person fit for a given job or a given job fit for a given person and overcome the efficiency paradox in developing and delivering education. An interesting idea is the appearance of services similar to “eBay” but in the context of online learning where users can have access exactly to what they need. Do not make the mistake of thinking that by combining different online pages from different courses you can produce a “mash-up” course. More likely, you will only produce a “ransom note” course. A good trainer will look at the different technologies available and mash up a solution that will be effective for their learner base (Rosen, 2006). Flexibility closely linked to the prior trend refers to the possibility of offering multiple e- learning experiences (methodologies, workloads, objectives, and so forth) in order to guarantee the personalization or customization for each learner leading to the universalizing of e-learning. E-Learning 2.0 must enable learning in every scenario to allow the integration of the educational life of students. In the new paradigm, e-learning should be individualized, localized, and globalized with aims to create unlimited opportunities for life long learning. Students are the centre of educa-

E-Learning 2.0 tion. Learning should be facilitated to meet their needs and personal characteristics, and develop their potentials. Students can be self-motivated and learn by themselves with appropriate guidance and facilitation, and the learning process becomes self-actualizing, discovering, experiencing, and reflecting (Cheng, 2002). Networking is linked to the idea of socialization and the possibility of getting advantage of any synergy that may arise in the net, including reutilization of materials, ideas, strategies, methodologies, and so forth, that, this way, are easily made available to everyone. Participants establish virtual identities and do networking with other participants. While still in early stages of development, technology is permitting new ways of accessing information and interacting. Rapid knowledge growth requires off-loading the internal act of cognition, sense, and meaning making, and filtering to a network consisting of human and technology nodes. Thus, E-Learning 2.0 can be regarded as a distributed process within a network recognizing and interpreting patterns, according to the connectivism theory. As Downes (2005a) explained in his presentation at the Transitions in Advanced Learning Conference about “What E-Learning 2.0 Means To You,” the learning is a network phenomenon where a Web of user-generated content is an important pillar. The network is open, diverse (multiple views, technologies, etc.) and connected and interactive (not integrated), made of small pieces, loosely joined. E-Learning 2.0 is about enabling a social experience that recognizes the course is but one social-organizational group in a broader education environment. E-Learning 2.0 is about moving beyond the course towards a more holistic conception of a networked learning environment. One consequence of this shift is a hunger by educators to conduct research and benchmark various e- learning strategies and programs using data from peer institutions (Blackboard, 2006). concLusIon After some hard beginnings, e-learning seems to be definitively catching a massive attention as the application of ICT is finally regarded as positive by the learning community. We could go even further and say that the institutions or teachers that do not count with this new element are doomed to become obsolete. On the other hand, the pressure of the learner demand for learning experiences that make use of the ICT in classroom activities, blended learning, or distance learning is each time stronger and stronger. In our opinion, one cycle is completed and we are now starting a second cycle that deals not with e-learning but with E-Learning 2.0. At the moment, there exists a lukewarm welcome to E-Learning 2.0, but, as time goes by, we predict that the learner demand will grow as quick as the interest among institutions and teachers, who should be constantly evolving. With such a prediction, our recommendation is to anticipate to needs and trends, be a pioneer now that you are still on time, and contribute to decide which must be the next step in e-learning. Do not surrender to the trends if you do not think that they are the best possible practices, but dictate them instead. E-Learning 2.0 is about personalizing the e- learning environment to be more disciplined and pedagogically specific to the educational activity at hand (Blackboard, 2006). This more tailored platform experience must be achieved through specialized software extensions developed by and for educators, as well as with rich, interactive digital resources. One important conclusion is that the emphasis is and should be more focused on methodologies than on technologies, tools, platforms, or applications. Do not make the mistake of thinking that wikis, blogs, or forums are the E-Learning 2.0. They are resources. E-Learning 2.0 needs structure and instructional design to be effective and provide return on investment. Courses 2.0 should

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    RAPAD example, whereas Laurillard h

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    RAPAD Ontologically, systems philos

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    RAPAD information related processes

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    RAPAD methods and techniques accord

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    RAPAD 2. An introduction to learnin

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    RAPAD then asked to reflect on and

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    RAPAD Figure 4. A rich picture to h

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    RAPAD Again using techniques from t

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    RAPAD university preparation course

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    RAPAD The third interface is at the

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    RAPAD Knight, P.T., & Trowler, P. (

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    RAPAD AddItIonAL reAdIngs Goodyear,

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning t

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning s

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning r

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning o

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning n

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning M

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning W

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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  • Page 252 and 253: E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)
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  • Page 256 and 257: Telematic Environments and Competit
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  • Page 274 and 275: Open Source LMS Customization Intro
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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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