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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

Evaluation

Evaluation and Effective Learning related to the learning objectives and decisive in the choice of contents and the establishing of tasks. The assessment is therefore not an isolated process undergone by students and then used to evaluate them but rather an activity in which they also participate and through which they can learn (Brown & Glasner, 1999). The following question to consider is which characteristics must the evaluation possess in order to be strategic and contribute to effective learning. According to Gibbs and Simpson (2005), the assessment systems must fulfil a number of conditions if they are to motivate the students to become involved in the learning tasks, modifying the way in which they would initially tackle them. The students are also strategic in the use of their time and effort and divide them up in order to obtain the best results in accordance with what they perceive as the assessment requirements. We must therefore bear in mind that the signals sent by the teachers through their assessment strategy do not always lead to the kind of learning basically desired. To achieve this type of learning, the assessment must fulfil several conditions that relate to the students’ effort, the feedback from the teacher, and how the students respond to this feedback (see Table 1). As already stated, the students select the topics and the way of carrying out tasks depending on what they think will be asked of them in the exam. So the first condition the assessment has to meet is to guarantee a certain quantity and quality of effort on the part of the student. Hence, a system of assessment designed to make the students dedicate sufficient time and effort to the tasks assigned to them, distributing this effort throughout the entire process, meets the first condition. Moreover, the learning effort made by the student must reach a certain level of quality .For this purpose, the learning tasks and activities must be so devised that the student learns in an efficient manner, clearly demanding mental and cognitive processes of a high level to solve these tasks. If the assessment system is to stimulate effective and significant learning, it must itself become a learning activity whose development is designed as a learning process. For this to happen, the correction and feedback activities must play an essential part. The feedback from the teacher has to be of sufficient quantity, quality, and speed. It is important that the corrections and indications offered should be focussed more on assessing learning, particularly in its formative aspect, and less on assessing the student. The comments Table 1. Conditions under which assessments supports student learning (Gibbs, Simpson, & Macdonald, 2003, p. 2) 1.Quantity and distribution of student effort Assessed tasks capture sufficient study time and effort. These task distribute student effort evenly across topics and weeks. 2.Quality and level of student effort These tasks engage students in productive learning activity. Assessment communicates clear and high expectations to students. 3.Quantity and timing of feedback Sufficient feedback is provided, both often enough and in enough detail. The feedback is provided quickly enough to be useful to students. 4.Quality of feedback Feedback focuses on learning rather than on marks or students themselves. Feedback is linked to the purpose of the assignment and to criteria. Feedback is understandable to students, given their sophistication. 5.Student response to feedback Feedback is received by students and attended to. Feedback is acted upon by students to improve their work or their learning.

Evaluation and Effective Learning should be focussed on the objective for which the task was designed and limit themselves to the quality criteria previously established. They should preferably be in written form and comprehensible to the students; they need to be adapted to the students’ vision of the discipline since, as learners, the students are not always capable of having an overall idea of the subject and of what knowledge it implies. Finally, in order to be truly effective, the assessment system must guarantee that students receive the feedback, assimilate it, and react to it, modifying those matters that the correction has shown can be improved upon. The assessment must therefore be designed in such a way that the feedback is useful, making use of the indications for subsequent tasks and activities which thus incorporate the improvements indicated in the correction of the previous task. It is important to point out that all these elements, which should be taken into account when selecting the assessment strategy, are associated with the learner, the student being an active subject of the learning process, and not so much with the teacher or the teaching process. As I see it, the central idea suggested by Gibbs and Simpson (2005) is therefore that the assessment is related to the students’ learning, occupying a central position in their involvement in the process, leaving the teachers the possibility of using it to direct their teaching and achieve the right kind of learning. This reinforces the idea that the learner, with all his internal learning processes and motivation, plays a central role in the teaching-learning process. The teacher, as an expert in the subject and in the best way of learning it, thereby becomes a provider of the process mentioned, endowing his teaching and assessment decisions with a strategic character that guarantees the best results. This activity of the teacher as a mediator in the learning process of his students and a strategist in the use of teaching and assessment does not come cheaply (Feuerstein, 1990; Feuerstein et al., 1980). A great effort is required, both in terms of time and in formation and conviction, for the employment of active methodologies and the preparation of the feedback necessary to make the correction of activities effective. New technologies and their application in teaching may alleviate the burden somewhat in this process. The possibilities offered by the Web and virtual teaching platforms mean that computers have become an essential work tool and that the means of communication between teacher and students and among the latter have multiplied. Thus, technology plays a major part in various aspects of the teaching-learning process, among which are the use of collaborative work and the possibilities of the strategic use of assessment, a matter of concern to us. Information and communication technologies (ICT’s) can help in the design and programming of activities, encouraging a specific distribution of work time by establishing work procedures directed towards more productive learning, communicating the results of the correction process to the students, and establishing feedback between the students and the teacher, briefly by involving the students more in the tasks and making them aware of the level of quality that these should possess. the eLectronIc PortFoLIo oF “InternAtIonAL economIc reLAtIons” This section describes the teaching innovation carried out in the Department of Applied Economics at the University of Oviedo for the subject “International Economic Relations.” The innovation is designed as an alternative assessment that permits evaluation of more than conceptual knowledge. One of the instruments that can be used to carry out this type of alternative assessment is the student’s portfolio. The portfolio is a technique of collection, compilation, and repertoire of evidences and professional competences that qualify a person for a satisfactory professional development. So,

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    RAPAD example, whereas Laurillard h

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    RAPAD Ontologically, systems philos

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    RAPAD information related processes

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    RAPAD methods and techniques accord

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    RAPAD 2. An introduction to learnin

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    RAPAD then asked to reflect on and

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    RAPAD Figure 4. A rich picture to h

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    RAPAD Again using techniques from t

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    RAPAD university preparation course

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    RAPAD The third interface is at the

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    RAPAD Knight, P.T., & Trowler, P. (

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    RAPAD AddItIonAL reAdIngs Goodyear,

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning t

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning s

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning r

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning o

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning n

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning M

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning W

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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