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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

Formative

Formative Online Assessment in E-Learning only to find out at the end that everything was done incorrectly. When the exercises are long, feedback should be given throughout the assessment, so that students can identify their errors and achievements. This is directly related to the levels of feedback. The concept of feedback levels comes into play when learners attempt part of an activity once and obtain general feedback that they are not quite correct and should keep working; they then receive more and more specific feedback until they complete the exercise correctly. In complex exercises, learners may not need to be told the correct strategy at their first attempt, and feedback should be given gradually. However, in less complex exercises, such as multiple-choice tests, learners benefit more from clear and detailed feedback about their answers at every attempt. As for the kind of feedback in terms of marks, Black and William (1998) summarized research evidence from 250 articles and chapters and noted that: Feedback has been shown to improve learning when it gives each pupil specific guidance on strengths and weaknesses, preferably without any overall marks. Thus, the way in which test results are reported to pupils so that they can identify their own strengths and weaknesses is critical. (Black & William, 1998, p. 144) In terms of where to place feedback, designers should take into account where the learner may struggle and where the critical “chunks” of content are, and then provide feedback in those places. onLIne Assessment Definition There is some confusion among similar terms, such as “computer-based assessment,” “computer-aided assessment,” “online assessment,” or “Web-based assessment,” and such terms are indeed often synonymously, even though they do not all mean the same. Recently, the term “e-assessment” has been used to mean assessment in e- learning environments or the (electronic) process by which the learner’s progress and understanding is assessed (BECTA, 2006), although the term has more frequently been applied to the projects of great scale where abilities, competences, aptitudes, and personality are assessed. Computer-based assessment and computeraided assessment are the most widely used terms, and refer to the use of a computer for viewing items and responding to them. The software managing the assessment may be on the individual computer or on one connected over a network, local or otherwise. When the software access comes from a network, with current assessment solutions often being delivered from a local or distant server, the proper term is online assessment. Web-based assessments are online assessments that can be delivered over the World Wide Web or a local area network. This type of assessment permits instructors to receive feedback (answers, results, errors, or comments) from students. advantages and Disadvantages of online Assessment We can identify advantages and disadvantages of online assessment for the institution, for the students and for the teachers. The most important disadvantage for the institution would be the “cost” of setting up the system at the beginning, though this would be compensated by the subsequent savings of time and money, and reduction of the administrative burden if the system is properly used. The advantages for students are numerous (Collis, De-Boer, & Slotman, 2001; Lowry, 2005; Plous, 2000; Sherman, 1998; Ward & Newlands, 1998): immediate feedback, guided effort, diagnosis of problems in learning, a more flexible pace of learning, reaching and motivating a large and

Formative Online Assessment in E-Learning diverse set of respondents, gaining experience in assessment methods, freedom from restrictions of time and place of assessment, and so on. The advantages increase if online assessment is adapted to the students’ ability (adaptive online assessment), or if it is adapted to student learning styles (Clariana, 1997). Online assessment, used as self-assessment, can help students monitor their own progress, making it an important tool of formative assessment (Ibabe & Jauregizar, 2005). Students should be trained to become accustomed to the online assessment tool, so that the assessment methodology does not obstruct performance. Stress or anxiety caused by inexperience in a computer-based system may be a disadvantage of online assessment. However, research comparing performance using computer and paper-based multiple-choice tests (Lee & Weerakon, 2001) has demonstrated that there is no measurable effect. Even so, Zakrzewski and Bull (1999) suggest that student anxiety can be reduced if they take formative assessment before summative tests. Teachers should also be trained to master software so as to enable efficient delivery of the assessment, which requires a “cultural shift” to invest time in designing new assessments rather than in traditional “marking” assessments (Bull, 1999). In any case, universities are facing an important “academic shift” with the development of the European Higher Education Area, and the use of ICTs will be crucial in adapting to that challenge. As Macdonald (2004) notes, online feedback can be given not only to individuals, but also to a whole tutorial group, forming the basis for online collaborative assessment. Moreover, computer-based assessment provides focus and timely feedback not only to students, but also to teachers, who can identify the gaps in their students’ knowledge or the questions that have not been adequately understood in class. Thus, teachers can give constructive and detailed feedback to every student, a task that would otherwise be too arduous. The time saving advantages of electronic marking are unquestionable (a wide range of topics and large groups can be assessed quickly, and results can be entered automatically into an administration system so that students receive their marks rapidly), but these advantages need to be offset against the time invested in writing challenging and effective questions, meaningful feedback and structuring appropriate tests (Bull, 1999). Although, as James, McInnis, and Devlin (2002, p. 24) point out, the design of online examinations is likely to require more time and effort than conventional pen and paper examinations, these authors also recognized that computers offer the potential to present students with more complex scenarios through the use of interactive resources (images, sound, or simulation). Some authors have expressed their fear about the “superficial” type learning that online assessment can generate (Ryan, 2000). The concern is that online assessment would be designed for assessment tasks only involving memorization and recall. Indeed, using the technology for assessment involving higher-level cognitive skills, including the application of analysis and synthesis, is a great challenge (Hyde, Booth, & Wilson, 2003), but work is already in progress on the development of these kind of assessment exercises in the online context. Effectiveness of online Assessment Many studies have indicated that integrating the e-learning environment with online assessment has positive results (Buchanan, 2000; Henly, 2003; Velan, Killen, Dziegielewski, & Kumar, 2002). Buchanan (2000) showed that a Web-based formative assessment strategy is able to improve student learning interest and student scores. He argued that the “repeat the test” strategy (giving more opportunities for becoming familiar with learning materials) is an important element in Web-based

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    RAPAD example, whereas Laurillard h

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    RAPAD Ontologically, systems philos

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    RAPAD information related processes

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    RAPAD methods and techniques accord

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    RAPAD 2. An introduction to learnin

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    RAPAD then asked to reflect on and

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    RAPAD Figure 4. A rich picture to h

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    RAPAD Again using techniques from t

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    RAPAD university preparation course

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    RAPAD The third interface is at the

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    RAPAD Knight, P.T., & Trowler, P. (

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    RAPAD AddItIonAL reAdIngs Goodyear,

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning t

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning s

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning r

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning o

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning n

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning M

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning W

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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