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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

Designing an Online Assessment in E-Learning or strategies, the self-evaluation or learning evaluation processes will be very useful. • In e-learning programmes, it is fundamental to evaluate participation and contrast whether the students have attained certain learning goals or not and, hence, whether they have reached the objectives of the course. • In online courses it is essential for the student to receive feedback on progress in the course. This also serves as a motivating element • In online teaching, contrary to expectations, there is much material for evaluating the students, given that a large part of the communication is written. • Hence, the assessment process must be planned, the assessment strategies have to be coherent with the material provided online and the criteria or references for assessment must be stated explicitly so that the student at a distance will know what the student is going to be evaluated on, how, when, and under what criteria the work will be assessed. As García Carrasco et al. (2002) point out, evaluation is an essential part of the teaching-learning process, as a measurement of the achievement of the learning objectives on the part of the student and also as a control of the quality of this process. However, current evaluation instruments have many limitations in the reading-writing context, which can be partly overcome by the new information and communication technologies. New technologies are emerging which make it possible to construct more complete models that are closer to the evaluation criteria. Mostly they are technologies oriented towards objects, which provide greater advantages than traditional technologies. Likewise, the Web is evolving towards a modular structure, following this same philosophy. The Web is a universal space of information, but it is a matter of turning it into a universal space of knowledge. metrodoLogy Assessment In e-LeArnIng The perspective guiding text is of a methodological and pedagogical nature; therefore, we try to plan the online evaluation process dealing in depth with the different elements which constitute it: objectives and functions of assessment, assessment criteria and indicators, people involved and assessment agents, software instruments and tools for the collection of data, and analysis of the information and reports Aims of the Assessment A first element to consider in a learning evaluation process of students in any formative scale is the aim of assessment: Why do we assess? In this moment, we should reflect on two concepts associated to evaluation and differentiated by their purpose; we are referring to the concepts of “formative assessment” and “summative assessment” (Scriven, 1967). Formative evaluation is mainly developed during the educational process because its objective is to improve it as long as the different tasks or learning-teaching activities are carried out; that is to say, formative evaluation centres its focus on the development phase. Is a type of assessment intimately joined to continuous assessment; both are carried out during the learning-teaching process. On the other hand, summative assessment tries to verify whether the objectives of a certain programme have been achieved or not, whether both have been both efficient and effective, and, therefore, is planned at the end, once the application of it has finished (Rosales, 1990). Nowadays, references to the concept of “assessment” in a general sense try more to stress the idea of formative (Charman, 2005; Robinson & Udall, 2006) than summative, insisting in the improvement of the students learning process, when making it easier and promoting a reflexive attitude necessary after the feedback received. 0

Designing an Online Assessment in E-Learning Assessment has been, as an element of the educational process, characterised as the critical factor in the teaching-learning process (Brown, Bull, & Pendleburg, 1997; Bull & Mckenna, 2001; McAlpine, 2002; Warburton & Conole, 2003). If the term assessment has had a negative connotation, it has been due to its consideration outside the learning improvement process. Pérez Juste (2006, p. 24) states that: ...to assessment it is assigned, or recognised, the function of improvement; a function which, by the way, is totally coherent with the essence of educative acts: we have to bear in mind that education is a systematical and intentional activity at the service of improvement of people. This supposes to have analysed education regardless of educational quality, when both concepts must actually be interconnected. Assessment is the element which contributes in a higher degree to the quality of the teaching-learning process, and is, therefore, necessary to be planned, useful, coherent and ethical. 1 Underlying the importance of the relation existent between assessment and quality, we want to stress the following words: Nowadays when so much about quality is said, it is important to state that assessment and education are closely bound together. It is possible that not assessment nor quality have sense, at least in education, if they are considered as independent parts (Zabalza, 2001, p. 270). In brief, assessment is an important part in the teaching-learning process, acting as a means for the consecution of the objectives of the learning process by the student, and also as a means to control the quality of the cited process (Pérez Juste, López, Peralta, & Municio, 2004). Assessment criteria and Indicators We evaluate precisely when we are in a position to establish a comparison between the information available and one of the reference frameworks, criteria, or normotypes that govern our action. In this case, different types of assessment are usually identified: normative, with an external or criterial referent, and personalised assessment. When no explicit assessment criteria exist, the objectives of the learning process become assessment referents. When, on assessing students’ learning, for example, we take as a referent the group the subject belongs to, conditioning the individual’s mark by the student’s relative position in it, we are in assessment contexts with reference to the norm, or normative evaluation. If the assessment is made in reference to previously specified criteria, that is, the passing of educational objectives, we will be in assessment situations with reference to a criterion, or criterial assessment (Popham, 1983). And, if the subject’s results are compared to that subject’s own previous results, we shall be in personalised assessment. Wise et al. (2006) write a chapter from the perspective of an engineering teacher at Penn State University, showing two different online assessment systems which are used to prepare the professional accreditation in engineering. This online self-assessment instrument captured on a weekly basis three types of class level data from the faculty: learning goal(s), learning activities to support each goal, and performance summary. The second online assessment system developed focused on three data sources or measurements that would provide further evidence to the accreditation agency that outcomes were being met (criterial assessment). Those three data targets included student performance on each outcome, faculty perception of course effectiveness, and student’s perception of their own degree of mastery 0

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    RAPAD example, whereas Laurillard h

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    RAPAD Ontologically, systems philos

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    RAPAD information related processes

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    RAPAD methods and techniques accord

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    RAPAD 2. An introduction to learnin

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    RAPAD then asked to reflect on and

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    RAPAD Figure 4. A rich picture to h

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    RAPAD Again using techniques from t

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    RAPAD university preparation course

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    RAPAD The third interface is at the

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    RAPAD Knight, P.T., & Trowler, P. (

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    RAPAD AddItIonAL reAdIngs Goodyear,

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning t

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning s

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning r

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning o

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning n

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning M

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning W

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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