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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

RAPAD

RAPAD information related processes via the instrument’s information based dimensions. Flexible student Alignment (FsA) Flexible student alignment (FSA) is produced by the student and PELE subsystems forming an adaptive system for interfacing with the subsystems of the university e-learning system. Biggs (1996, 1999, 2003) proposed the use of the concept of “constructive alignment” and sees the process as “aligning curriculum objectives, teaching/learning activities and assessment tasks” (Biggs, 1999, p. 65). This concept has become a generally accepted approach to viewing the teaching-learning process. It takes a constructivist perspective on learning and aims to align objectives expressing the types of understanding required of the student with assessment tasks which help us to see that those objectives have been met. The teaching context and the assessment tasks also help students to undertake suitable e-learning activities and the assessments clearly articulate what the students need to do. This is a useful and productive approach. It does, however, consider alignment largely from the teacher and teaching enabled learning perspective. We can also adapt this to the idea of developing e-learning systems and environments—that is, most current systems and environments are developed from the organisation’s perspective. However, if we recognise the need for and advantages of the personalization of learning and e-learning for lifelong learning in the knowledge society, then we need adaptive systems and environments. The RAPAD methodology allows us to develop personalized e-learning systems and environments to promote Flexible Student Alignment via the involvement of the student in the design and development process. McCune (2003) recognised this when reporting extensive work on university teaching-learning environments (Entwistle, 2003; Entwistle, Mc- Cune, & Hounsell, 2002). The team had modified their view of constructive alignment to consider the concept of “alignment to students” (McCune, 2003, p. 24). She also suggested that learning measures and questionnaires had their limitations in providing descriptions of the complexity of alignment in any given situation and stated that: While a teaching-environment may seem well aligned in terms, for example, of the correspondence between the forms of learning encouraged by the different aspects of the teaching and assessment, this does not mean that this environment will be equally suitable for all of the students involved. (McCune, 2003, p. 24) We can paraphrase this to say that: while the e-learning systems and environments may seem well aligned in terms of, for example, the correspondence between the forms of e-learning required for the overall efficient functioning of their university, this does not mean that this systems and environments will be equally suitable for all the students involved. What is need is a series of personalized subsystems which can interface with the university e-learning systems and environments with the software processes, information, and learning objects arranged with and by the individual student for each student’s e-learning purposes. The work reported here focused on the learner and consequently considered alignment from the student perspective as well. There is a close fit and tight-coupling between the student and the PELE as e-learning support system. This and the facility for loose coupling and flexibility between the PELE and the university as an e-learning environment enables students to better align themselves with the various teaching-learning environments they encounter. Flexible Student Alignment allows the student to use the SLS-PELE system to exercise individual flexible alignment with respect to the multiplicity of teaching-learning environments and other university e-learning support systems encountered.

RAPAD technology or human-centred e-Learning systems design? Many of the changes in education and society in recent years have been technology driven. In most OECD countries (excluding the USA, where a mass or even universal system of higher education has long been in place) there has also been a shift from and elite to a mass system of higher education (Trow, 1973). This shift has meant an increase in participation rates from 10- 15% to 30-40% of the 18-21 age group alongside wider participation from the population in general (DfES, 2003). This combination of changes (and reductions in student per capita funding) has meant that new methods of teaching and learning have become necessary. Technology is seen as a major enabler, but the learning is still done by the student, aided by good teaching. This means we need student-centred learning systems rather than technology-centred systems. The changes have been placed in a broad context above and will be focused on at the individual level with reference to learning and to organisations in general and universities in particular. The user-centred design perspective and systems approach adopted is set within a systems theory framework and much of the theoretical thrust comes from an integration of the ideas of Donald Schön (1971, 1983, 1987, 1991) and Peter Checkland and co-workers (Checkland, 1981, 2000; Checkland & Holwell, 1998; Checkland & Scholes, 1990). Schön and Checkland were concerned with change in society and organisations. Schön is perhaps most closely identified with education and learning; Checkland with organisational change and information systems. Checkland acknowledges the strong links between the central theses of the two authors (Schön and The Reflective Practitioner, Checkland and Soft Systems Methodology) in the second of his major texts, Soft Systems Methodology in Action (Checkland & Scholes, 1990). In the final chapter, entitled Gathering and Learning the Lessons, Checkland comments that “this chapter is intended to demonstrate an acute case of the kind of reflection which Schön (1983) advocates in ‘The Reflective Practitioner’” (Checkland & Scholes, 1990, p. 276). The development of RAPAD then draws on the theoretical and applied work of both men— separately and together. Separately because the individual contributions included Schön’s “The Reflective Practitioner: and Checkland’s “Soft Systems Methodology.” Together, in that they both draw extensively on systems theory and Vickers’ concept of “appreciative systems” to help gain an understanding of the operations of both individuals and organisations. This is the basis of Checkland’s “Human Activity Systems” (Checkland, 1981, 2000). The learning system produced by the integration of the students, RAPAD, PELE, and supporting technologies is considered to be an example of such a system. Information systems methodologies and user-centred and Participatory design In the development of RAPAD, several information systems methodologies were drawn on at different times. These include Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology, Vora’s Human Factors Methodology for developing Web sites (1998) and the Human Factors for Information Technology methodology and tool kit, HUFIT (HUSAT, 1990), which was used for the interface design guidance. There are an enormous number of methodologies for the development of information systems. Most, fundamentally, are products in the market place so each has its own tools and techniques, all of which are claimed to be superior to all the others for doing essentially the same things—conducting the activities of the systems development life cycle. Some authors (Avison & Fitzgerald, 2003; Avison & Wood-Harper, 1990; El Louadi, Galletta, & Sampler, 1998) have suggested using a “contingency approach” to system development. This allows for the selection of different sets of

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Open Source LMS Customization or ev

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    Open Source LMS Customization compa

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Haina

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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