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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

RAPAD methods

RAPAD methods and techniques according to criteria such as the complexity of the system under development, the role of the user in the system and the expertise of the system developer. RAPAD can also be considered to be a contingency methodology drawing, as it does, on a range of tools and techniques which can be adapted for a variety of circumstances. This flexibility can be useful in dealing with complex scenarios where an innovative approach might be useful. This is often the case in higher education where there are additional reasons for complexity. As well as the different cultural and social norms encountered learning support systems have to have sound pedagogic aims, objectives, and achievements. Consequently, it can be argued that the implementation of such systems can be more difficult than “normal” business information systems. Participatory design was pioneered in Scandinavia in the 1960s and 1970s (Preece et al., 2002). As its name suggests, it is designed to encourage user involvement in the design process and, along with contextual design, is one of the user-centred approaches to interaction design. Whereas contextual design aims to use an ethnographic approach to help the designer to understand the user in his or her social, work and cultural context, participatory design encourages the active involvement of the user in the design process. We can consider the similarities between contextual design and participatory design. Contextual design has seven activities: contextual inquiry, work modeling, consolidation, work redesign, user environment design, mockup, and test with customers (Preece et al., 2002, p. 296). One form of participatory design, as used here, is to broadly follow these activities, but to ensure that the user (or learner in this case) is dynamically and iteratively involved in the full design and development process. This involvement is not always an easy task to ensure, although the participation of students studying a human computer interaction unit in the first and main iteration of this study greatly facilitated the process. The participatory approach in this study was operationalized by the use of cognitive profiles and the involvement of students in reflecting on their own responses and then applying them to learning environment design. Using the three measures plus an iterative process of discussion, design, and feedback gave a more holistic and systemic approach to the design of the PELEs. In the information systems arena, there is a central statement indicating that you cannot design a better or improved system without fully understanding how the current system works—and no one understands the day to day working of a system like the users. As with many well-worn sayings, it is uttered frequently but followed rarely. Giving students the relatively comprehensive information concerning their approaches to learning and their information processing preferences (with reference to the layout and structure of learning materials and, by inference, interfaces) allows them to reflect and comment on both the accuracy of the measures and their applicability to the tasks in handincluding thoughts on how and why they learn. The use of the additional learning style and personality elements of the cognitive profile also allows comparison between the measures and an extension of the individual differences being considered Why Use a Reflective and Participatory methodology? The overall process for the individual student is one of reflecting on the elements of a personal cognitive profile and then, after discussion and consideration, applying the results of those reflections to the development of a Web technologybased personalised e-learning environment. This approach taken has several key features that contribute to its effectiveness. These include the following: • Participation in the process helps students to develop metacognitive awareness and

RAPAD Figure 3. RAPAD provides the guiding methodology but the cognitive profile and PELE are key components to help reconceptualize learning and e-learning RAPAD: The methodology provides the overall process and framework Cognitive Profile: Enables learner focused reflection on learning characteristics PELE: Provides design and development context and focus self-regulatory skills and to explore their attitudes to learning and e-learning in a manner which promotes Lifelong Learning. • Students produce a personalised Web site or Personalized E-Learning Environment (PELE) which provides a personalized access to learning materials and support systems. • The student is a major contributor to and participator in the design and development process, but it is not assumed that the student can do this alone—the instructional designer and teacher have key roles in facilitating the process. • A framework is provided that affords both a structure to work within and a process to follow. • Participation in the process helps students to learn about user-centred, learned-centred, and participatory approaches to technology based e-learning environment design • As a product of the process, students get a resource which works in several ways and on several levels—an information organiser, a e-learnplace, a virtual/physical interface, a cognitive interface, and an organisational interface. • The design process helps give participants a better understanding of students learning and e-learning systems design. student engagement with rAPAd In terms of student engagement with RAPAD and the process of reconceptualizing their understanding of personalized learning, the following are key steps in the application of the methodology (several of these tasks are performed iteratively or in parallel over the life cycle of the process): 1. Continuous reflection and comment on all aspects of the process via mechanisms such as discussion, reflective journals, tutorial and assessment tasks, and learning related design task.

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Open Source LMS Customization or ev

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    Open Source LMS Customization compa

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Haina

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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