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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

A Heideggerian View on

A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (negotiators, communicators, historians, doctors, software designers, etc.). Bearing in mind these learning distinctions, it can be said that one of the causes of the knowing-doing gap is that the vast majority of the educational offer satisfy only the “learn about” kind of learning, and that many people expect at least “learn to do.” Because educational practices needed in order to “learn about” are not sufficient when one needs “learn to do,” there is an important discrepancy between supply and demand in education. As I have said, Heidegger philosophy can help us to give new insights in order to design innovative educational offers. Summarizing Heidegger contributions, one can say that good learning design should: • To throw the learner in the situation he/she must know which is the context for the practice that must be mastered • Always start by local and concrete examples and/or involved practice, and then move gradually to detached reflection • Design situations where one must deal with breakdowns • Make available a vast repertoire of situations, cases, and so forth, on the topic to be learned • Design or use technology that is “ready at hand,” that is, easy to use, transparent 7 For instance, in order to improve “learn about...” teaching practices, one should not start by presenting definitions of the topic to be studied, and then move from general abstractions to particular situations, from theory to practice. Instead of that, one should do exactly the opposite: start by presenting particular stories where the studied phenomenon shows itself (because our encounter with a new phenomenon happens always through particular and concrete examples), and then move to a definition of the “thing,” hence going from practice to theory, from concrete examples to abstract definitions. An example of the above is a series of speeches that I have designed for the IT Department of a Spanish petroleum company. The concern of the chief information officer (CIO) was to improve the technical culture of the computer professionals and to share the accumulated knowledge across the different specialities of the department. For instance, in designing the speech on networks and telecommunications we started by a very concrete situation for all of the targeted IT professionals: when one sends a message from Building A to Building B, 8 what happens (technically speaking)? The presentation described step by step the different technologies involved in this process: computers, servers, switches, routers, optical fibre, and so forth, then showed the different IP addresses of all the elements included in this network, and continued moving from significant examples (significant for the IT professionals of this company) to definitions and again to examples. All of the other presentations were designed this way. The result was a good evaluation and a significant attendance of the IT professionals to the series of speeches, while these attendance and evaluation were poor in the past. In the next section I will present a model for the two others kinds of learning: “learn to do...” and “learn to be...”; in other words, learning a skill and learning to be a professional. PhenomenoLogy oF LeArnIng A skILL Hubert Dreyfus has done a major contribution describing the process for which one is able to learn and master a skill. According to Dreyfus, this process is always a kind of apprenticeship. In the first presentation of his model (Dreyfus, 1986), he distinguished five levels: novice, advanced beginner, competence, proficiency, and expertise. Later, he added two more levels: mastery and practical wisdom (Dreyfus, 2001). Inspired by his work, I will present a simplified model of

A Heideggerian View on E-Learning apprenticeship with only three levels: beginner, competent, and expert. Beginner The instruction process should, of course, start throwing the learner in a situation close to the real work situation the learner will be in. The instructor gives learners the information (facts, rules, procedures) they need to cope with the situation and coach the learners. In corporate learning (i.e., learning programmes especially designed for only one company), and in executive education, one can benefit from the experience of the learners and work with their situations instead of giving them case studies that bring practice to the classroom but which is not students’ own practice. Therefore, the situations where students should be thrown must be based in the everyday coping of the learners with the situation, that is, the way they cope every day with some subject or topic, the way they face it every day at the workplace. 9 In undergraduate education, where students do not have professional experience, one should move to traditional case studies, role playing, and/or computer simulations. In any case, a learner should be thrown in a situation which is significant to him/her (e.g., work situations) in order to provoke emotions and involvement, which is also necessary to bridge the knowing-doing gap because at work we experiment emotions and involvement. 10 For instance, when learning to use a technology (e.g., a software), the designer must create situations focused on the purpose of the use of this technology for the learner, and throw the learner in these situations. If unemployed people should learn how to use a software like Word, traditional learning design will present all of the functions of the software and then move to applications. A Heideggerian-based design will rather ask the learners to write a curriculum vitae (which is probably the main purpose of using a word processor for an unemployed person) and, in this process, make him learn the main functionalities of Word. Another example is the e-learning courses I have designed for the new employees of la Caixa, the most important Spanish savings bank. Using participative course design methods, the design team worked with end-users of the courses, that is, new employees and their managers. For instance, when designing a course on insurance, we asked them: what is the everyday coping of la Caixa’s new employees on insurance? The answer helped us to focus on the skills that new employees must come to master when dealing with insurance (for instance, to sell insurance that takes care of customers’ concerns). Then we asked for recurrent situations faced by the new employees in this field, which lead us to write a sequence of mini cases. At the end of each mini case learners have to answer questions like: “What would you do in this situation?” “What kind of products can you offer to this client?” “What would be your advice to this customer?” and so forth. Answers must generally be sent to a forum for discussion with the online classroom colleagues, moderated by their online trainer (which is a branch manager). Relevant information in order to perform these activities is suggested to learners (which they can access on the Web pages of the courses). All of the courses were structured as a series of mini-cases. The learner must start always with a case (which thrown him/her in a situation based on the everyday coping of la Caixa employees with the topic of the course), therefore being concrete examples of involved practice. The material they can access in order to perform these activities gives them definitions and general knowledge they can apply to different particular situations. competent As the learner becomes competent in coping with “normal” situations, in applying general rules and procedures to particular situations, the instructor

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

  • Page 6 and 7: Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi
  • Page 8 and 9: Chapter III Philosophical and Epist
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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Open Source LMS Customization or ev

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    Open Source LMS Customization compa

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Haina

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning r

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning t

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning m

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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