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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

A Heideggerian View on

A Heideggerian View on E-Learning on the cases. Obviously, at this level ICT can also enhance classroom teaching. Examples are: • The Technology Enhanced Active Learning (TEAL) project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where students learn physics moving seamlessly between non traditional lecture, hands-on experiments, and discussion. Classrooms consist of 13 tables with 9 students per table. Most of the student work involves building, running, and experimenting with simulation models and then solving problems. No traditional lecture takes place; rather, professors and their teaching assistants walk around from table to table, see what interesting issues are unfolding, and occasionally interrupt the entire class to discuss something that a particular table is encountering (Brown, 2005). In particular, TEAL provides impressive media-rich visualizations and simulations delivered via laptops and the Internet that allows students to “see” what is otherwise impossible to see: electromagnetism, electrostatics, and so forth. By doing this, the whole TEAL system throws students in the context of research in physics; also, every session start by concrete examples and involved practice. • A CD-ROM designed in a school of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Paris, which help students in preparing their business English exam. During the exam the students must read an article from the business press (Business Week, The Economist, Financial Times, Fortune, etc.) and then summarise the text in a discussion with the professor. Only 10 minutes are allowed to the student to read and understand the article and prepare the discussion that lasts for other 10 minutes. The CD-ROM contains a random selection of ad hoc articles and has a dictionary that allow for rapid consultation of the most difficult words. An important feature is that the article disappears from the screen after 10 minutes. In other words, the programme throws the student in the same situation the student will be in during the exam and helps to prepare the discussion; also it gives the students a vast repertoire of cases on the topic to be learned. Technology is “easy to use,” “ready at hand.” • The Practicum in Law at the Open University of Catalonia is an online simulation of the practical training that students must run in law firms. The students access a simulated office (with tables, chairs, computers, telephones, law books, and a virtual boss) where there is some work to do. The virtual boss asks something of the student by letting messages on the virtual table which, after clicking on, the student can read. All of the documentation necessary to do what is requested is available. The student must do the requested work, fill the documents, and send them to the boss (in fact, a professor) who will comment and suggest actions to take. The process continues until the work is completely done. Again, the system throws the learner in the situation where the learner must know and, in the context of the practice, must master, always starting by local and concrete examples. At level “Competent,” if one wants to learn a motor skill, it is necessary to enter a face-to-face apprenticeship. At this level, mastering karate needs a significant experience in fighting because it is in fights (and not in exercises) where one will be confronted to breakdowns (caused by the opponent). Furthermore, the same applies when learning a dance and a collective sport: ICT can only help to record the learner movements and separate it into its elements in order to analyse errors, as it is done with high performance athletes. In learning a cognitive skill at this level, ICT can still support significant enhancements,

A Heideggerian View on E-Learning because ICT-based scenarios can throw students in situations where they will be confronted to breakdowns. Examples of this are: growltiger This is a software for simulating structures in civil engineering at MIT. This programme was conceived in the beginning as a design tool but quickly became a very powerful learning tool. It incorporated a finite element algorithm for studying equilibrium forces. Students could draw on the screen a structure such as a beam of a truss for a bridge, specify the materials and the dimensions, then lead the bridge, and the programme showed them deflections, moment diagrams, and so forth. Students could simulate the structure’s behaviour under different load conditions, explore the space of possible bridge designs, and find “surprises” in this process. We can see here reflection-in-action: “interacting with the model, getting surprising results, trying to make sense of the results, and then inventing new strategies of action on the basis of this new interpretation. Students could iterate very quickly with this design tool” (Schön, 1996). In Heidegger’s words, Growltiger helps to design situations where one must deal with breakdowns; also, it gives the student a vast repertoire of situations, cases, and so forth, on the topic to be learned. walking in the Fog This is a case study on IT project implementation that I have implemented in different university settings, both face-to-face and online. The case—called NetActive City—tells the story of the implementation of a virtual school of entrepreneurs and a virtual incubator. The main point is that the case is given in several “parts” and the situation change as time goes by (as it happens in real life!). As a matter of fact, the question of time is a fundamental one but, unfortunately, never properly handled in PCCE. Case studies usually give all the information in one time but it never happens like that in real life. In doing this, traditional case studies train students to analyse facts of the past rather than to cope with present situations. By giving the case in several parts, one can create breakdowns hence training students to respond to the changes and to reframe the problem in the light of new information on the situation. In his book Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, Milan Kundera summarises brilliantly this question of time and our ontological impossibility to know the future. In the chapter “Paths in the Fog” he says that man proceeds in the present always as the one who walk in the fog: unsure of what the next moment may bring. Walking in the fog one can see the edge of the path, what happens near, and react, and one can see 50 meters ahead, but not beyond. This fundamental truth should be scenarised in our case studies: instead of training students in the illusion of rigorous planning based on data, one should train them to work with uncertainty and breakdowns. In other words, one must put fog in case studies. Online learning open new possibilities to do this. Case studies can then take place in some short “chapters” where the professor gives new information on the situation, hence changing it and asking students: “What will you do now?” Organising an asynchronous discussion will allow for reflection-on-action, while running a discussion with a small group using synchronous discussion tools (e.g., a chat room) will force reflection-in-action. In both cases the instructor can design situations where one must deal with breakdowns. A Blended Learning course on communication Another example of a course aimed at learning from breakdowns is the one designed on commu- 0

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Open Source LMS Customization or ev

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    Open Source LMS Customization compa

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Haina

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning m

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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