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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

Philisophical

Philisophical and Epistemological Basis for Building a Quality Online Training Methodology concLusIon What sense is there in posing a reflection of the concept of paideía in Ancient Greece in order to develop a methodology suited to online training? As has been seen at the beginning of this chapter, most e-learning initiatives are set in motion without having a clearly defined method or a strategy suited to the peculiarities of this type of training. Moreover, there seems to be a more or less widespread trend to accept constructivism as an explanatory framework or theoretical presupposition. However, constructivism is a cognitive theory rather than a method and perhaps this confusion lies at the bottom of many serious errors related to training paradigms for e-learning. Thus, if constructivism indicates to us a desideratum, a goal, but is not a method in itself, the need remains to set up a path on which to trace the route of learning in an interaction framework as peculiar as the one corresponding to online training. In short, all theoretical reflection on this type of training revolves around what should be done, but there is very little effective orientation to indicate how to achieve what we are supposed to do. After analyzing the different conceptions of education throughout history, we feel that the Greek paideía model is perfectly suited both to the presuppositions of the commonly accepted theoretical framework and to a more realistic (and in a certain sense, “classical”) position, according to which a teaching profile is necessary in order to guarantee the success of a training initiative. The model from Ancient Greece shares with us the idea that training is a task that falls to the subject being trained, but which is not achieved alone and without the presence of someone who, although remaining in the shadows, will always appear when needed and will be capable of showing us the road to knowledge. This knowledge, however, is not understood as a simple acquisition of contents but rather will be developed in capabilities, competencies, and skills which only make sense if put into practice and therefore are learned along the way. This action, which is the result of knowledge, is revealed in a social context, a context in which new knowledge is produced as the result of the action and interaction of the subjects. Knowledge is, then, the fruit of a social environment. Finally, dialogue and language are the basic elements in the quest for learning, since this is no more than a continual process of questions and answers, answers that lead to new questions… The purpose of these pages was not, then, to develop a method for online training based on the activity of the tutor as a catalyst in the teachinglearning relationship, as has been done in previous studies (Seoane Pardo & García Peñalvo, 2006; Seoane Pardo, García Peñalvo, Bosom Nieto, Fernández Recio, & Hernández Tovar, 2006). On this occasion, on the contrary, we opted to illustrate the groundwork on which to build this method, starting from a model with a long tradition and which, by the way, is to be found in the very foundations of western civilization. Future reseArch dIrectIons The philosophical and epistemological reflections contained in this chapter are part of a more ambitious research concerning a new methodology for online training, especially a methodology for training “online teachers” or “tutors” (also known as “facilitators” or “e-facilitators” in other contexts). These considerations, among with the main hypotheses of that methodology, are being tested in several initiatives developed by the University of Salamanca that are being addressed to different kind of users with completely different learning contexts and with remarkable success in all the various scenarios where this methodology has been proved. Most of the theories and even case studies related to methodology and didactics in e-learn-

Philisophical and Epistemological Basis for Building a Quality Online Training Methodology ing contexts analyze the learning contexts and how students learn in these initiatives, simply explaining the scenario or offering a sum of suggestions to improve the learning experience. But still persists the need of a real teaching model for e-learning activities, because teaching roles are still fundamental to let trainees achieve the desired goals, skills, and competences required for any learning activity. Thus the main challenge for the near future is the definition of a complete methodology for training teachers specifically adapted to online contexts, among with the clear definition of their skills and competences. These studies, actually being proved in real learning contexts, will be completed with several “user manuals” for online teachers, students, learning content designers, and instructional designers, all of them adjusted to a rigorous quality framework that must preside the whole process of every learning activity that aspire to deserve the qualifying of excellence. AcknowLedgment This work has been partly financed by the Ministry of Education and Science (Spain), KEOPS Project (TSI2005-00960). reFerences Anderson, E.M., & Shannon, A.L. (1995). Towards a conceptualization of mentoring. In T. Kerry & A.S. Mayes (Eds.), Issues in mentoring. London: A.S. Routledge. Barberà, E. (2006). Los fundamentos teóricos de la tutoría presencial y en línea: Una perspectiva socio-constructivista. In J.A. Jerónimo Montes & E. Aguilar Rodríguez (Eds.), Educación en red y tutoría en línea (pp. 161-180). Mexico: UNAM FES-Z. Bruner, J. (1997). La educación, puerta de la cultura. Madrid, Spain: Visor. Bruner, J. (1998). Desarrollo cognitivo y educación. Madrid, Spain: Morata. Carruthers, J. (1993). The principles and practices of mentoring. In B.J. Caldwell & E.M.A. Carter (Eds.), The return of the mentor: Strategies for workplace learning. London: Falmer Press. Cecez-Kecmanovic, D., & Webb, C. (2000). Towards a communicative model of collaborative Web-mediatic learning. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 16(1), 73-85. Coll, C., Martín, E., Mauri, T., Miras, M., Onrubia, J., Solé, I., et al. (2005). El constructivismo en el aula, Vol. 111 (15th ed.). Barcelona: Graó. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. Boston, MA: Heath. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Macmillan. Dougiamas, M., & Taylor, P.C. (2003). Moodle: Using learning communities to create an open source course management system. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the EDMEDIA 2003 Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii. Garrison, D.R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21 st century: A framework for research and practice. London, New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Guthrie, W.K.C. (1971). The sophists. London: Cambridge University Press. Jaeger, W. (1945). Paideia: The ideals of Greek culture (G. Highet, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press. Kennedy, G.A. (1963). The art of persuasion in Greece. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Little, J.W. (1990). The mentor phenomenon and the social organisation of teaching. In C. B. Court-

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Chapter XI Swarm-Based Techniques i

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Swarm-Based Techniques in E-Learnin

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    Chapter XII E-Learning 2.0: The Lea

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    E-Learning 2.0 Table 1. Different s

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    E-Learning 2.0 Figure 1. Difference

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    E-Learning 2.0 where the blog is al

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    E-Learning 2.0 process. Along this

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    E-Learning 2.0 forth, and, of cours

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    E-Learning 2.0 Finally, it is impor

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    E-Learning 2.0 never be a hotchpotc

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    E-Learning 2.0 McPherson, K. (2006)

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    E-Learning 2.0 Rosen, A. (2006). Te

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Telematic Environments and Competit

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    Open Source LMS Customization Intro

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    Open Source LMS Customization or ev

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    Open Source LMS Customization compa

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Figur

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    Open Source LMS Customization Haina

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning r

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning t

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning p

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning m

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning c

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    Evaluation and Effective Learning H

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    Chapter XVI Formative Online Assess

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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