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The 21st Century Charter Schools Initiative

The 21st Century Charter Schools Initiative

The

The Obama administration announced a Promise Neighborhoods program, which hopes to replicate the success of the HCZ in poverty-stricken areas of other U.S. cities. In the summer of 2010, the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods program accepted applications from over 300 communities for $10 million in federal grants for developing HCZ implementation plans. The War on Poverty The War on Poverty is the unofficial name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964. This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty. As a part of the Great Society, Johnson believed in expanding the government's role in education and health care as poverty reduction strategies. These policies can also be seen as a continuation of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, which ran from 1933 to 1935, and the Four Freedoms of 1941. The legacy of the War on Poverty policy initiative remains in the continued existence of such federal programs as Head Start, Volunteers in Service to America, TRIO, and Job Corps. The popularity of a war on poverty waned after the 1960s. Deregulation, growing criticism of the welfare state, and an ideological shift to reducing federal aid to impoverished people in the 1980s and 1990s culminated in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996, which, as claimed President Bill Clinton, "end[ed] welfare as we know it." Page 32 of 43

References 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charter_schools_in_the_United_States 2. http://www.educationjustice.org/newsletters/nlej_iss21_art5_detail_CharterSchoolAchi evement.htm 3. http://www.uncommonschools.org/faq-what-is-charter-school 4. http://www.greatschools.org/school-choice/6987-public-private-charter-schools.gs 5. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/The_American_School/Charter_vs._Public_Schools 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waiting_for_%22Superman%22 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_Children%27s_Zone 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_on_Poverty 9. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/drafts/2008/DRU1492.pdf 10. http://www.allianceforpublicwaldorfeducation.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/05/2012_Alliance_HowToStartACharterSchool.pdf 11. https://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/charterguidance03.pdf 12. http://www.calcharters.org/understanding/faqs/ 13. http://www.hamiltonproject.org/files/downloads_and_links/THP_Fryer_Charters_Brief. pdf Page 33 of 43

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