; INTRODUCTION In so far as man devotes his life to the betterment of mankind to the best of his abiHty, he is fulfilHng his purpose in Hfe. Thus, today, more than ever before, man values preparation for life, and young people are going to colleges in ever increasing numbers to obtain this preparation. The Scientific Attitude and Method Are Essential to the Attainment of the Goal of Humanity. It has just been pointed out that to get satisfaction we must give something. Selfishness must be tempered with unselfishness. In our social organization the only way to reach the goal of personal happiness is by directing our major efforts toward the higher goal of general welfare, the Goal of Humanity. This implies service for the general good and good intentions for service, although they are absolutely essential, will not take us far without the knowledge of how to carry them out. Knowledge of mankind, knowledge of one's self, knowledge of one's physical environment — every kind of knowledge is essential to progress. Knowledge is most effective when it is organized. " Science " has frequently been defined as " organized knowledge and the method by which it is obtained." The method by which knowledge is obtained is the chief characteristic of Science. Briefly, it is the appeal to experience rather than to traditional dogmas or to any authority not supported by controlled experience. The scientific method is the expression of an attitude of faith in the Order of Nature as revealed through human experience. Inasmuch as naive experience is always limited and often untrustworthy, the scientific method involves the control of every experience by verification by experiment; cultivation of accuracy of observation, careful keeping of records, and logical analysis of the congruence of every experience with other experiences are likewise involved in the scientific method. Progress in the discovery and utilization of knowledge requires a more general acceptance of the scientific attitude and a more widespread use of the scientific method. Such progress, together with an increased desire for the general welfare, is essential to the attainment of the Goal of Humanity.
UNIT I THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS AS THEY ARISE IS THE PRICE OF LIBERTY INTRODUCTION TO UNIT I The acquisition and systematizing of positive knowledge is the only human activity which is truly cumulative and progressive. Our civilization is essentially different from earlier ones, because our knowledge of the world and of ourselves is deeper, more precise and more certain, because we have gradually learned to disentangle the forces of nature, and because we have contrived, by strict obedience to their laws, to capture them and to divert them to the gratification of our own needs.^ — Sarton. Man alone, of all experiences. the animals, has the ability to evaluate his own He alone has the power of directing his behavior, of guiding it by what he has learned from past experience, although his efforts are pitifully inadequate. At last, man has developed a method of thinking and an attitude of mind that can lead surely and ever more rapidly to progress. In this unit you will be introduced to this attitude and method. You are hereby warned that you are now entering upon a study that will probably revolutionise your thinking and greatly change your conduct for the rest of your life. here, for what follows is not for you. Professor Walter M. Kotschnig wrote in Review, If you are not ready for such a change, stop The Harvard Educational Putting it bluntly it is this: much of our teaching at home and in the schools of this country has tended to undermine and destroy the sense of values of the younger generation and to leave them naked in a world of predatory animals; worse, to turn them into predatory animals themselves. . . . This is the world in which we live ... a world without values. Professor A. J. Carlson (" Is This the Age of Science?" Sigma Xi Quarterly, winter, 1940) points out that we are living in an age of propaganda in which lying is a fine art, although the scientific method demands that we suspend judgment until we know the facts and demands honesty, integrity and industry in ascertaining the facts. ' Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. I, pp. 3-4. 3