4 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS He also points out that the shops of astrologers and fortunetellers had as great an attendance as did the Adler Planetarium at the Century of Progress Exposition, and that many people neglect and oppose vaccination, thus delaying the wiping-out of smallpox, although there is nothing better substantiated than the effectiveness of vaccination against smallpox. He concludes his thesis that this is not an age of Science by showing that increased knowledge is used by society largely to " satisfy greed, lust, hate and vanity " because the spirit and method of Science have not appreciably influenced the average man. The present world-upheavals demonstrate what happens when predatory men are given the power which modern scientific knowledge Democracy can be a bulwark of civilization only to the has set free. extent that it is influenced by the scientific attitude and utilizes the scientific method in the solution of problems in terms of basic, timetested values; in fact, the price of liberty is the intelligent solving of each problem as it arises in daily life.
UNIT I SECTION 1 PROBLEM -SOLVING ABILITY IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AIMS OF EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRACY Introduction. One of the reasons that dictatorships exist is because so many people beHeve that the major problems of society cannot be solved by democratic processes. In totalitarian states, people are taught what to think rather than how to think. In such states the dictators and the subleaders under them do the thinking and the planning for the rest of the people, who are forbidden to think. "Theirs not to reason why. Theirs but to do and die." In a democracy problems must be settled privately, or by cooperative enterprises, or by representatives selected by the people to solve problems in accordance with the will of the majority. In a democracy problems cannot be solved by a dictator, benevolent or otherwise. Since every citizen is his own dictator in a democracy, success in meeting human needs depends upon the extent to which the masses have mastered the techniques of solving problems. New Problems Arise in a Period of Cultural Transition. Culture Is the Way a Society Does Things. How our society does things depends upon our geographic environment, our cultural heritage, and the creative activities of man. Changes in culture come chiefly as a result of man's activities. A certain amount of change would be found in any culture because the knowledge of the past is influenced by the men to whom it is entrusted as it is handed down from one generation to the next. The most important causes of cultural change are the contacts between different cultures and inventions within the group. The greatly improved modern methods of transportation and communication have increased the contacts between modern cultures. Each invention leads to other new inventions. Modern Science has greatly accelerated the rate of producing epoch- 5