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Man's physical universe

224 PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS

224 PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS HAVE BEEN OVERCOME Allowances must he made for expansion and contraction in steam pipes and water pipes in buildings, in long pipe lines, in the construction of bridges, paving, and railroad tracks. Expansion in pipes is permitted by the use of tight sleeves, within which the pipes can work back and forth. Pipe lines use large loops, whose change in curvature will take care of expansion and contraction. Rivets in steel girders and sheets are put in place while hot, partly because they are softer and thus easier to work at high temperatures, but also because they contract on cooling to form very tight joints. Cracks are left between sections in concrete paving; these cracks are generally filled with tar. On a very hot day the tar may sometimes be seen to bulge up at the cracks due to the expansion of the concrete. Bimetallic-strip thermostats, widely used in temperature-regulating devices, consist of two strips of metal with different coefificients of expansion, such as brass and steel, fastened together so that the strip is bent when it is heated. Some thermometers built into ovens work on this principle. Thermostats of certain types utilize bimetallic strips whose motion closes electric contacts or air-pressure lines, which thus regulate the heat supply or the electricity for house-heating systems, hot-water heaters, refrigerators, and electric irons. The coefficients of linear expansion of a few common substances are shown in the following table: Material Ratio of Increase in Length to Length at 0° C, per Degree C. Aluminum 0.0000255 Concrete 0.0000168 (varies with composition) Copper 0.000014 Steel 0.000013 (varies with composition) Lime 0.000009 (varies with composition) glass (ordinary) . . Platinum 0.000009 Borosilicate glass .... 0.000003 (varies with composition) Ordinary glass has to be annealed after it has been heated to a high temperature. Annealing is accomplished by cooling the glass slowly so that one portion will not cool more rapidly than another, thus avoiding strains in the glass which would result in the glass breaking too easily. Borosilicate glass has a much lower coefficient of expansion than ordinary glass and may therefore be heated to high temperatures and be cooled quickly without fracture. For that reason it has been used in making oven-ware and laboratory apparatus. Utensils now made of specially treated low-expansion glasses may be used for cooking foods over a free flame.

THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS 225 Platinum has been used when it was necessary to fuse a metal into lime glass because it has the same coefficient of expansion as this glass. Metals of a different coefficient of expansion would cause cracks to form around the seal when it was cooled. Satisfactory cheap alloys such as kovar, which consists of a mixture of iron, nickel, cobalt, and manganese, and "Dumet" wire, consisting of a copper-clad steel wire, are now used to replace platinum in the manufacture of electric-light bulbs and other products in which metal wires must be sealed in glass. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. How does a true solid differ from a vitreous solid? 2. Give five examples of true solids and of vitreous solids. 3. Mention two respects in which water shows unusual properties. 4. State Le Chatelier's principle and illustrate it with several examples. 5. Explain the effect of adding heat to, or subtracting heat from, a mixture of ice and water. 6. Mention three advantages of dry ice as a refrigerant. 7. Mention some of the consequences of the fact that water has its maximum density at 4° C. 8. Explain how the principle of the expansion of metals is used in a thermostat. 9. Why is borosilicate glass better than lime glass for cooking-utensils? 10. Explain how the formation of ice moderates winters. IL Give the principle back of each of the applications listed in the summary.

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    THE MACMILLAN COMPANY NEW YORK •

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    Revised Edition Copyrighted, 1943.

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    VI PREFACE the origin and evolution

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    viii PREFACK which the student sele

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    Preface Acknowledgments CONTENTS PA

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    CONTENTS Section 7. Coal Has Become

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    ; INTRODUCTION In so far as man dev

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    4 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROBL

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    6 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROBL

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    . 8 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PRO

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    10 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    14 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    16 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    18 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    UNIT I SECTION 3 THE SUPREME CONTRI

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    22 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    24 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    26 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    UNIT I SECTION 4 OBSERVATIONS MUST

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    30 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    34 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    38 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OP' PRO

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    40 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    UNIT I SECTION 6 STRAIGHT THINKING

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    44 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    46 THK INTFLLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    48 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROB

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    UNIT II THE UNIVERSE IS A VAST SYST

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    54 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF PA

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    50 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF PA

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    74 THK UNIVKRSK A VAST SN'STKM OF P

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    76 THK rMX'ERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF PA

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    UNIT II SECTION 5 THE EARTH RECEIVE

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    91) THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF P

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    94 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF PA

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    98 THE UNI\'i:i

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    100 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF P

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    102 THK I'MX i:KSh: A VAST SWSri-.M

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    104 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF P

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    106 THK UNIX'KRSK A \'AST SYSTEM OF

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    no THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF PA

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    ; 112 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF

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    114 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF P

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    116 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF P

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    UNIT II SECTION 9 ASTRONOMICAL MEAS

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    120 THE UNIV^ERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF

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    122 THK UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF P

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    124 THE UNIVERSE A VAST SYSTEM OF P

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    126 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE coolin

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    128 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE As evi

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    130 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE It is

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    UNIT III SECTION 2 THE NATURE OF TH

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    l.U THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE of the

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    136 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE Inasmu

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    UNIT III SECTION 3 THE PRINCIPAL AG

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    140 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE China

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    142 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE within

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    144 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE Zealan

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    UNIT III SECTION 4 THE CHARACTERIST

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    150 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE stream

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    152 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE majori

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    156 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE 1891,

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    16() THK EARTH AS MAN'S ABOUK The t

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    162 THK EARTH AS MAN'S ABODF: River

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    164 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE Tambor

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    166 THK EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE STUDY

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    168 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE study

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    170 THK KARTH AS MAN'S ABODE fossil

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    172 THE EARTH AS MAN'S ABODE The Hi

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    AIR CONDITIONING 275 Paul then expe

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    AIR CONDITIONING 277 is merely a de

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    Silica gel is AIR CONDITIONING 279

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    AIR CONDITIONING 281 operated by th

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    AIR CONDITIONING 283 Heat conductiv

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    AIR CONDITIONING 285 quite comforta

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    UNIT V MAN HAS DISCOVERED AND HARNE

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    UNIT V SECTION 1 ENERGY MANIFESTS I

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    ENERGY MANIFESTS ITSELF IN MANY FOR

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    ENERGY MANIFESTS ITSELF IN MANY FOR

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    ENERGY MANIFESTS ITSELF IN MANY FOR

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    UNIT V SECTION 2 THE PRUDENT UTILIZ

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    THE CONSERVATION OF OUR ENERGY RESO

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    THE CONSERVATION OF OUR ENERGY RESO

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    THE CONSERVATION OF OUR ENERGY RESO

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    THE CONSERVATION OF OUR ENERGY RESO

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    UNIT V SECTION 3' MODERN MACHINES H

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    MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDAR

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    MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDAR

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    MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDAR

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    MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDAR

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    MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDAR

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    MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDAR

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    MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDAR

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    TRANSPORTATION HAS BEEN REVOLUTIONI

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    TRANSPORTATION HAS BEEN REVOLUTIONI

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    TRANSPORTATION HAS BEEN REVOLUTIONI

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    THE INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE 329

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    THE INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE 331

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    THE INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE 333

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    THE INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE 339

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    UNIT V SECTION 6 THE AUTOMOBILE TYP

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    THE AUTOMOBILE 343 consolidations o

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    THE AUTOMOBILE 345 same survey show

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    THE AUTOMOBILE 347 tenance costs in

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    THE AUTOMOBILE 349 Buying oil on th

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    THE AUTOMOBILE 351 STUDY QUESTIONS

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    AIRPLANE A TRIUMPH OF MODERN SCIENC

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    AIRPLANE A TRIUMPH OF MODERN SCIENC

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    AIRPLANE A TRIUMPH OF MODERN SCIENC

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    AIRPLANE A TRIUMPH OF MODERN SCIENC

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    AIRPLANE A TRIUMPH OF MODERN SCIENC

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    AIRPLANE A TRIUMPH OF MODERN SCIENC

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    UNIT V SECTION 8 FLYING AN AIRPLANE

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    AERODYNAMICS 367 Weight, i.e.^ a me

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    AERODYNAMICS 369 The Venturi tube i

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    AERODYNAMICS 373 right. After attai

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    AERODYNAMICS 375 An Airplane Practi

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    UNIT V SECTION 9 AVIGATION IS THE S

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    AVIGATION 379 Aeronautical charts a

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    AVIGATION 381 a chart the distance

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    AVIGAT ION 383 instructors and comm

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    388 ENERGY MAY BE PROPAC.AIED BY VI

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    390 ENERGY MAY BE PROPAGATED BY VIB

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    F"iG. 170. Theironsshown in this fi

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    396 ENERGY MAY BE PROPAGATED BY VIB

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    un ENERGY MAY BE PROPAGATED BY VIBR

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    •5 I o U -a "o ua "o 3 O U s

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    UNIT VI SECTION 5 LIGHT MAY BE REFL

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    436 ENERGY MAY BE PROFAC.ATEI) BY V

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    UNIT VII THE APPLICATIONS OF MAGNET

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    478 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY iron

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    MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY A compass

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    530 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRIC ITV read

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    B, ; 532 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY

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    534 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY loud-

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    536 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY frequ

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    540 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY The e

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    542 MAGNETISM AND KLKCTRK ITY silve

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    548 MAGNETISM AND KLKCTRICITY that

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    UNIT VIII SECTION 6 ATOMS DIFFER IN

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    1 H 614 MAN IS MASTERING HIS MATERI

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    618 MAN IS MASTERING HIS MATERIAL W

  • Page 638 and 639:

    620 MAN IS MASTERING HIS MATERIAL W

  • Page 641 and 642:

    UNIT IX SECTION 1 OXYGEN AND SULFUR

  • Page 643 and 644:

    OXYGEN AND SULFUR, CARBON AND SILIC

  • Page 645 and 646:

    OXYGEN AND SULFUR, CARBON AND SILIC

  • Page 647 and 648:

    : OXYGEN AND SULFUR, CARBON AND SIL

  • Page 649 and 650:

    OXYGEN AND SULFUR, CARBON AND SILIC

  • Page 651 and 652:

    OXYGEN AND SULFUR, CARBON AND SILIC

  • Page 653 and 654:

    METALLURGY 635 flotation. Many impr

  • Page 655 and 656:

    METALLURGY 637 have been investigat

  • Page 657 and 658:

    METALLURGY 639 twenty years. Copper

  • Page 659 and 660:

    METALLURGY 641 Aluminum and its all

  • Page 661 and 662:

    METALLURGY 643 6. List ten metals a

  • Page 663 and 664:

    COMBUSTION 645 heat is dispersed ne

  • Page 665 and 666:

    Carbon Monoxide Is a Dangerous Pois

  • Page 667 and 668:

    COMBUSTION 649 Huge thermite incend

  • Page 669 and 670:

    COMBUSTION 651 is much used in indu

  • Page 671 and 672:

    COMBUSTION 653 their other properti

  • Page 673 and 674:

    UNIT IX SECTION 4 AIR AND WATER ARE

  • Page 675 and 676:

    AIR AND WATER AS RAW MATERIALS 657

  • Page 677 and 678:

    AIR AND WATER AS RAW MATERIALS 659

  • Page 679 and 680:

    AIR AND WATER AS RAW MATERIALS 661

  • Page 681 and 682:

    AIR AND WATER AS RAW MATERIALS 663

  • Page 683 and 684:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM CELLULOSE 665

  • Page 685 and 686:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM CELLULOSE 667

  • Page 687 and 688:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM CELLULOSE 669

  • Page 689 and 690:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM CELLULOSE 671

  • Page 691 and 692:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM CELLULOSE 67 3

  • Page 693 and 694:

    SYNTHETIC PLASTICS 675 of flooring,

  • Page 695 and 696:

    SYNTHETIC PLASTICS 677 furfural in

  • Page 697 and 698:

    SYNTHETIC PLASTICS 679 for textile

  • Page 699 and 700:

    SYNTHETIC PLASTICS 681 elastic qual

  • Page 701 and 702:

    SYNTHETIC PLASTICS 683 natural gas.

  • Page 703 and 704:

    SYNTHETIC PLASTICS 685 powerful int

  • Page 705 and 706:

    SYNTHETIC PLASTICS 687 which is one

  • Page 707 and 708:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM COAL 689 of 19

  • Page 709 and 710:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM COAL 691 perfu

  • Page 711 and 712:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM COAL 693 Coal

  • Page 713 and 714:

    UNIT IX SECTION 8 THE ALREADY VERY

  • Page 715 and 716:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM PETROLEUM 697

  • Page 717 and 718:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM PETROLEUM 699

  • Page 719 and 720:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM PETROLEUM 701

  • Page 721 and 722:

    "BETTER THINGS" FROM PETROLEUM 703

  • Page 723 and 724:

    UNIT IX SECTION 9 NATURAL AND SYNTH

  • Page 725 and 726:

    NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC RUBBERS 707 2

  • Page 727 and 728:

    NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC RUBBERS 709 e

  • Page 729 and 730:

    NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC RUBBERS 711 I

  • Page 731 and 732:

    NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC RUBBERS 713 t

  • Page 733:

    NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC RUBBERS 715 5

  • Page 737 and 738:

    UNIT X SECTION 1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS STO

  • Page 739 and 740:

    I H I H C PHOTOSYNTHESIS STORES ENE

  • Page 741 and 742:

    PHOTOSYNTHESIS STORES ENERGY 723 th

  • Page 743 and 744:

    UNIT X SECTION 2 FOODS ARE THE RAW

  • Page 745 and 746:

    FOODS 727 charged plates which caus

  • Page 747 and 748:

    FOODS 729 to particles which are vi

  • Page 749 and 750:

    FOODS 731 roots by dialysis. The we

  • Page 751 and 752:

    FOODS 733 Plants, like animals, req

  • Page 753 and 754:

    FOODS 735 although the necessity fo

  • Page 755 and 756:

    FOODS 737 regardless of whether the

  • Page 757 and 758:

    VITAMINS, ENZYMES, AND HORMONES 739

  • Page 759 and 760:

    Vitamins VITAMINS, ENZYMES, AND HOR

  • Page 761 and 762:

    VITAMINS, ENZYMES, AND HORMONES 743

  • Page 763 and 764:

    VITAMINS, ENZYMES, AND HORMONES 745

  • Page 765 and 766:

    VITAMINS, ENZYMES, AND HORMONES 747

  • Page 767 and 768:

    VITAMINS, ENZYMES, AND HORMONES 749

  • Page 769 and 770:

    CHEMICAL WARFARE USED TO COMBAT INS

  • Page 771 and 772:

    CHEMICAL WARFARE USED TO COMBAT INS

  • Page 773 and 774:

    CHEMICAL WARFARE USED TO COMBAT INS

  • Page 775 and 776:

    NATURALLY OCCURRING SOLUBLE SALTS 7

  • Page 777 and 778:

    NATURALLY OCCURRING SOLUBLE SALTS 7

  • Page 779 and 780:

    NATURALLY OCCURRING SOLUBLE SALTS 7

  • Page 781 and 782:

    NATURALLY OCCURRING SOLUBLE SALTS 7

  • Page 783 and 784:

    NATURALLY OCCURRING SOLUBLE SALTS 7

  • Page 785 and 786:

    UNIT X SECTION 6 CHEMISTRY HAS PROV

  • Page 787 and 788:

    C I I C C I I H I — H H C I I I C

  • Page 789 and 790:

    C I H C I H C H CHEMISTRY AND THE C

  • Page 791 and 792:

    C I I I H CHEMISTRY AND THE CONTROL

  • Page 793 and 794:

    CHEMISTRY AND .THE CONTROL OF DISEA

  • Page 795 and 796:

    UNIT X SECTION 7 THE RELIEF OF PAIN

  • Page 797 and 798:

    C RELIEF OF PAIN REVOLUTIONIZED SUR

  • Page 799 and 800:

    C H C II I I H H— H— RELIEF OF

  • Page 801 and 802:

    I I I I I I I C H H C H C H H RELIE

  • Page 803 and 804:

    C I H C I H RELIEF OF PAIN REVOLUTI

  • Page 805 and 806:

    C H C H C I H H RELIEF OF PAIN REVO

  • Page 807 and 808:

    RELIEF OF PAIN REVOLUTIONIZED SURGE

  • Page 809 and 810:

    PROTOPLASMIC AND CELLULAR ORGANIZAT

  • Page 811 and 812:

    " PROTOPLASMIC AND CELLULAR ORGANIZ

  • Page 813 and 814:

    PROTOPLASMIC AND CELLULAR ORGANIZAT

  • Page 815 and 816:

    THE PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION 797 wo

  • Page 817 and 818:

    THE PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION 799 to

  • Page 819 and 820:

    THE PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION 801 ST

  • Page 821 and 822:

    CONCLUSION 803 majority of students

  • Page 823 and 824:

    BIBLIOGRAPHY UNIT I Author Bernal,

  • Page 825 and 826:

    Author BIBLIOGRAPHY 807

  • Page 827 and 828:

    Author BIBLIOGRAPHY 809

  • Page 829 and 830:

    BIBLIOGRAPHY 811 Author National Re

  • Page 831 and 832:

    BIBLIOGRAPHY 813 Author Rhodes, F.

  • Page 833 and 834:

    Author BIBLIOGRAPHY 815

  • Page 835 and 836:

    INDEX Abrasives, 760 Absolute zero,

  • Page 837 and 838:

    1 INDEX 819 irreversible, 593 photo

  • Page 839 and 840:

    INDEX 821 Dynamite, 669 Dynamo, 515

  • Page 841 and 842:

    INDEX 823 Hardening, 637 Hardness,

  • Page 843 and 844:

    INDEX 825 Local anaesthetics, 771,

  • Page 845 and 846:

    INDEX 827 Periodicity, 568 Periodic

  • Page 847 and 848:

    INDEX 829 Roentgen, W. R., 546 Roll

  • Page 849 and 850:

    INDEX 831 Thunderstorms, 268, 489 T

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