296 FORMS OF ENERGY 9. What is the true nature of heat energ>? 10. List four difTerent methods for the production of heat. 11. How are the two factors of heat energy- measured? 12. State the first two laws of thermodynamics. 13. Why is a perpetual-motion machine im5X)ssible? 14. What is meant by the term "work"? 15. What is power? 16. Why is it desirable to use engines or motors which will deliver more pxjwer than is generally required? 17. If a 10-h.p. engine and a 100-h.p. engine each had the same weight and each one were to be placed in an identical chassis, would one engine use more gasoline than the other engine in climbing a 10-mile grade provided only 5 h.p. were required to climb the grade? Why or why not? 18. What is a horsepower? 19. What becomes of that portion of the energy supplied to a machine that does not do useful work? 20. How is friction eliminated in machinery? 21. Why is friction such an important problem in the construction of machinery? 22. Prepare a list of useful applications of friction. 23. Why should one use low gears rather than brakes of an automobile in descending a long steep grade? Where is the friction produced when using low gears? Why is the friction produced when descending in low gears less harmful than that produced when using the brakes? 24. Classify the following examples of energy: (a) a speeding automobile, (b) a glacier, (c) the solar s>stem, (d) hot water, (e) dynamite, (/) sugar.
UNIT V SECTION 2 THE PRUDENT UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION OF OUR ENERGY RESOURCES ARE AN IMPORTANT SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEM He that invents a machine augments the power of man. — Beecher. Introduction. On June 30, 1934, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt established The National Resources Board to prepare and present to the President a program and plan of procedure dealing with the physical, social, governmental, and economic aspects of public policies for the development and use of land, water, and other national resources. On March 15, 1938, President Roosevelt wrote a letter to the Chairman of the National Resources Committee, which succeeded the National Resources Board and the National Planning Board, in which he stated, the need for a comprehensive study of our energy sources, their prudent utilization and conservation, and their competitive relation to each other and to the national economic structure becomes increasingly evident. The power that operates the machines of our industrial civilization has been millions of years in the making, "and every ton of coal used, every barrel of oil used, and every cubic foot of natural gas used is so much wealth drawn from nature's storehouse." The consumption of power per capita in the United States is 50 per cent higher than that of Great Britain, more than twice that of Germany, and more than ten times that of Japan. Bituminous coal supplies 48 per cent of the power; anthracite coal, 6 per cent; petroleum, 32 per cent; natural gas, 10 per cent; and water power, less than 4 per cent. Water power is the only energy resource that is wasted if it is not used and that continually renews itself. 297