Man's physical universe

xanabras

THE CONSERVATION OF OUR ENERGY RESOURCES 305

a system of industrial fellowships supported by over 3500 companies at

one time or another has been a very effective industrial-research agency.

Commercial research laboratories, such as the Arthur D. Little

Company in Boston and the Twining Laboratories in Fresno, California,

are well equipped to help industries with their problems.

One of the significant trends is the definitely democratic practice

of small business firms organizing to maintain centralized research

laboratories; the cleaners and dyers, the bakers, the medical profession,

the dentists, and the canners are typical cooperative associations that

maintain research laboratories. Consumer cooperative organizations

are providing a much needed research service for consumers.

There are 122 private foundations such as the Brookings Institute

and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, which spend

nearly $5,000,000 annually in research.

Research is recognized as one of the major functions of institutions

of higher learning such as the State universities, the Massachusetts

Institute of Technology, and the California Institute of Technology,

many of which have annual research budgets of over one milUon

dollars.

The Federal Government conducts research on problems dealing

with the improvement of agriculture, the conservation of natural

resources, mining, and the maintenance of physical standards. In

all

of these researches the government serves the double purpose of

directing its own operations and supplying the people with important

information. The Smithsonian Institution is an important semipublic

research agency.

The United States Department of Agriculture maintains important

research laboratories in the Weather Bureau, the Bureau of Animal

Industry, the Bureau of Dairy Industry, the Bureau of Plant Industry,

the Forest Service, the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, the Bureau

of Entomology, the Bureau of Biological Survey, the Bureau of

Public Roads, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, the Bureau of

Home Economics, the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration,

the Grain Futures Administration, the Food, Drug, and Insecticide

Administration, and many agricultural experiment stations.

The Department of Commerce sponsors the Bureau of Standards

and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; the Department

of the Interior operates the Bureau of Mines, while the Public

Health Service also conducts important research activities.

The Federal Government spends for research about one dollar

annually for every person in the United States, through about one

hundred agencies in addition to those mentioned above.

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