' 304 FORMS OF ENERGY control and utilization of natural resources. These and many other problerris have been accentuated by modern technological development, which has changed the jobs of working people, has opened up vast material resources, has speeded travel and communication, and has led to nationwide business organizations handling goods and services that were unknown to our ancestors. Science has created a new world, and only with an understanding of science is there any hope of establishing laws and customs for this new world that will work and give satisfactory results.' The United States Government National Resources Planning Board ^ Committee "is concerned with the kind of planning which is a peculiarly American custom, based on an enthusiastic belief in of a democracy to utilize intelligence." the ability You are urged to read the following reports published by the National Resources Committee. They may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C, for ten cents each. Planning Our Resources Our Cities Population Problems Regional Planning The States and Planning Technology and Planning Water Planning Federal Relations to Research Scientific Research Should Receive Even More Support than It Does Today. Scientific research in industry in the United States was almost unknown in 1900. Today several thousand research laboratories are maintained by industries, some of which have expenditures ranging from five to forty million dollars a year. It is coming to be recognized that the price of progress in industry is research and that from 2 to 4 per cent of the income should be allotted to research. Some of the great research laboratories of today are those maintained by the Bell Telephone Company, the General Motors Company, the Eastman Kodak Company, the E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company, the Dow Chemical Company, the National Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation, the General Electric Company, the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, the B. F. Goodrich Company, and the Hercules Powder Company. The Mellon Institute, founded at the University of Pittsburgh in 1911 and built and endowed by Andrew and Richard Mellon, through 1 From Technology and Planning, National Resources Committee, 1937. 2 Formerly "The National Resources Board" and "The National Resources Committee. '
THE CONSERVATION OF OUR ENERGY RESOURCES 305 a system of industrial fellowships supported by over 3500 companies at one time or another has been a very effective industrial-research agency. Commercial research laboratories, such as the Arthur D. Little Company in Boston and the Twining Laboratories in Fresno, California, are well equipped to help industries with their problems. One of the significant trends is the definitely democratic practice of small business firms organizing to maintain centralized research laboratories; the cleaners and dyers, the bakers, the medical profession, the dentists, and the canners are typical cooperative associations that maintain research laboratories. Consumer cooperative organizations are providing a much needed research service for consumers. There are 122 private foundations such as the Brookings Institute and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, which spend nearly $5,000,000 annually in research. Research is recognized as one of the major functions of institutions of higher learning such as the State universities, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the California Institute of Technology, many of which have annual research budgets of over one milUon dollars. The Federal Government conducts research on problems dealing with the improvement of agriculture, the conservation of natural resources, mining, and the maintenance of physical standards. In all of these researches the government serves the double purpose of directing its own operations and supplying the people with important information. The Smithsonian Institution is an important semipublic research agency. The United States Department of Agriculture maintains important research laboratories in the Weather Bureau, the Bureau of Animal Industry, the Bureau of Dairy Industry, the Bureau of Plant Industry, the Forest Service, the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, the Bureau of Entomology, the Bureau of Biological Survey, the Bureau of Public Roads, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, the Bureau of Home Economics, the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, the Grain Futures Administration, the Food, Drug, and Insecticide Administration, and many agricultural experiment stations. The Department of Commerce sponsors the Bureau of Standards and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; the Department of the Interior operates the Bureau of Mines, while the Public Health Service also conducts important research activities. The Federal Government spends for research about one dollar annually for every person in the United States, through about one hundred agencies in addition to those mentioned above.