306 FORMS OF ENERGY The wide variety of research organization makes adequate provision for individual initiative. On the other hand, many important, pressing problems could be solved more quickly through the planning and coordination of research programs. It seems probable that the Federal Government will be the best agency for conducting practical researches on pressing problems, thus leaving to other research agencies the development of fundamental research. The present trend toward the use of intelligence in guiding Federal activities, national planning, and researches dealing with problems for the welfare of the public should be encouraged by every citizen. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Discuss the organizations which conduct research in the United States. 2. What departments of the United States Government carry on research? 3. To what ends are the majority of the United States Government researches carried out? 4. Why do colleges and universities not accomplish more in research than they do? 5. List the outstanding industrial research laboratories in the United States. 6. Discuss modern research in relation to the consumer. 7. Would you say that the research facilities of today are adequate? 8. How would you recommend that research be fostered? 9. What type of research should be conducted by the Federal Government and why? 10. What problems does the conservation of our energy resources involve? 11. Discuss the origin and functions of the National Resources Planning Board Committee. 12. To what extent can water power replace other energy sources? 13. What are some of the possible future sources of energy? 14. Why should conservation be undertaken in this time when an abundance of readily accessible energy sources are still available? 15. Discuss some of the Federal Activities which have been undertaken to conserve our energy resources. 16. Why is national planning necessary? 17. Discuss the water-power projects that have been sponsored by the National Government during the past decade. 18. In what respects are our power sources now inadequate? 19. Why is national planning now more urgent than it was one hundred years ago? 20. In what respects is national planning dependent upon Science?
UNIT V SECTION 3' MODERN MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDARDS To concentrate thought and effort upon dividing existing things rather than on the creation of new ones is a sure sign of degeneracy. It is the doctrine of one who would take from others rather than create for himself. — Henry M. Dawes. Introduction. Machines have made the United States the richest country in the world. They have made it possible for more people to have abundance and leisure. They have also brought serious social problems, many of which our government is struggling to solve. It is important that these problems be understood, because the most intelligent planning by our government will not solve these problems without our whole-hearted cooperation. Modem Machines Are Combinations of a Few Simple Principles. Leonardo da Vinci, the greatest inventor of history and also a great artist, invented the centrifugal pump, the dredge, the roller bearing, the universal joint, the conical screw, the rope and belt drive, link chains, bevel gears, and spiral gears. The use of gears is an illustration of the way in which man magnifies the force he is able to exert in order to do work more advantageously. The rate at which work is done is power. In order to accomplish a given amount of work, less power is required if the work is done more slowly; that is, if the distance an object is moved during a given time is decreased. The use of the inclined plane is one method of decreasing the vertical distance an object is moved per unit of time. Thus it requires more power but less time to climb a steep stairway than one that is not so steep. The ' Much of the material in this Section was taken from the following publications of the Machinery and Allied Products Institute, with their permission: More Fads on Technology and Employment Machinery and the A merican Standard of Living 307 Fig. 102. The inclined plane.