Man's physical universe



Automatic Machines Are Gradually Replacing Semi-automatic Machines.

Most of the machines in present-day factories require people to tend

them. Machine-tenders have to do the same thing day after day, at the

pace which the machine sets. Such work is not creative, and such

Fig. 108. Automatic automobile frame plant. Capacity of automatic

plant, 8000 finished and painted frames per day. (Courtesy of the A. 0. Smith


workers are really slaves to the machines which they tend. An important

development in industry is the introduction of automatic machines,

which require no human labor other than that involved in

producing, adjusting, and repairing them. Modern nail-making machines

keep up their incessant clatter without the presence of an

attendant. Modern automatic bottle machines can turn out 250,000

bottles a day. Modern automatic die-casting machines can turn out

castings at the rate of 4,204,800 per machine per year. Automatic

punch presses help to make Woolworth stores possible.

Electrical devices, to be studied later, such as solenoids, thermostats,

meters, magnetic valves, transformers, electromagnets, vacuum tubes,

and the electric eye have made possible automatic machines that could

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