318 FORMS OF ENERGY not otherwise be produced. Machine-tending instruments have taken over the jobs that have to do with weighing, sorting, inspecting, counting, temperature-reading, and even chemical analysis of exhaust gases and raw materials. A modern laundry machine washes the clothes, rinses them three times, and spins them dry enough to hang on the line, using the proper length of time and the proper water temperature for each operation. The only thing that the housewife has to do is to put the clothes and the proper detergent and water-softener in the machine and operate the starting-switch. The A. O. Smith Company of Milwaukee employs 600 engineers, but only 200 skilled workmen, in its plant, which uses automatic machines to turn out 10,000 automobile frames every 24 hours. Adult Education Will Be Required to Help Society to Adjust Smoothly to Changes Produced by the Machine. A study of present trends points toward fewer machine tools, the workers being arranged in shifts and the machines being used day and night. Cheaper electricity will facilitate night-shift work, and twentyfour hour a day operation of machines will promote more rapid changes in industrial processes because fewer machine tools will be required and therefore less money will be tied up in the machines. Furthermore the machine tools will wear out more quickly and will thus require replacement with more modern machine tools. Present developments also point toward a very much more extensive use of automatic machines. It must be recognized that while new scientific discoveries will undoubtedly absorb more workers than are displaced by the increased use of automatic machines, yet many people who are displaced by machines will find it difificult to find new jobs because their training and experience have been centered on the kind of work for which the demand is decreasing. During the past decade many streetcar conductors and motormen have been thrown out of employment, and it is difficult for a man between fifty and sixty-five years of age, who has done nothing but run streetcars for twenty-five or thirty years to adjust himself to a new job. One of the adjustments of society to this problem of the displacement of workers by machines is the widespread development of adult education. Unemployment insurance will help to provide a living while the worker is preparing for a new job. The majority of adults did not receive as much higher education as the younger generation is now enjoying, and as a rule their education was less practical and less general than that which their children are receiving. The scientific
MACHINES HAVE RAISED LIVING-STANDARDS 319 knowledge now being taught in the schools was not known when many present adults went to school, and the scientific attitude and method had not been generally recognized as an essential for every citizen in a democracy. Many adults will find that, when they are displaced from their jobs, they will have to compete with very much better-prepared younger people for new jobs. Furthermore, scientific developments Fig. 109. New machine tool at Pratt and Whitney Division, United Aircraft Corporation, East Hartford, Connecticut. This machine drills 14 holes simultaneously in aircraft engine cylinders. Drills come in from five different directions. The operation is entirely automatic. This machine and two similar ones for reaming, countersinking, spotfacing and tapping, now do in three minutes what previously required work on seven machines and took one hour. (Courtesy of the National Machine Tool Builders' Association.) and the progress of technology are taking place at an ever accelerating pace, which means that our young people who are now graduating from the people's colleges will find themselves to be so far behind the times within twenty years, unless they make it their business to continue their education after their formal schooling, that they will be ill fitted for employment in the new industries that do not now exist and poorly equipped to cope with the new social problems that will arise.