326 FORMS OF ENERGY series of crude attempts to fit engines into horse-drawn vehicles instead of designing vehicles to fit the engines. Later it took many years for the automobile to outgrow the horseless-carriage stage of its evolution. In 1789 Oliver Evans (1755-1819) received the first United States patent for a "self-propelled" carriage. Steam-propelled road vehicles were highly developed in France during the next hundred years and received special impetus with the invention of Leon Serpollet's "flash generator" in 1888-1889, which generated steam in a very short time and which was applied in the White and Stanley "steamers" in the United States. The Internal-combustion Engine Has Gradually Replaced the Steam Engine. The early developments in highway, railroad, and water transportation all used the steam engine; but the steam-propelled automobile has disappeared from the highway, and many boats and trains are now using the Diesel type of internal-combustion engine. The principle of the internal-combustion engine and its application to automobiles and airplanes wull be discussed in the following sections of this Unit. The following brief history of the development of the internal-combustion engine will serve as an introduction to the following sections. In 1860 Lenoir of Paris made a gas engine w'hich used coal gas and was fired by a spark from an induction coil and electric battery. In 1862 Lenoir successfully applied this engine to a road vehicle, but he was handicapped by the fact that he could carry only a small amount of fuel. In 1867 Otto and Langen of Germany were granted a United States patent for the first four-cycle compression engine. In 1885 Daimler adapted Otto's gas engine to the use of petrol. In 1876 George Brayton, a Boston engineer, exhibited a petrol engine, which was inferior to Daimler's engine, however. In the 1880's petroleum distillates were first used for internal-combustion engines. In Germany, Gottlieb, Daimler, and Carl Benz competed in the production of improved gasoline-operated motor vehicles. Levassor of France adapted Daimler's patents to the production of motor vehicles that introduced many of the features of modern automobiles. Levassor placed the engine in front, and it is still there today. In 1892 Charles E. Duryea and his brother Frank built the first American gasoline car. In 1899 the Olds Motor Works was organized to build automobiles; this pioneer company was followed by the organization of the Buick
TRANSPORTATION HAS BEEN REVOLUTIONIZED 327 Auto-Vim and Power Company in 1901, the Cadillac Automobile Company in 1902, and the Ford Motor Company in 1903. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. What is meant by progress in transportation? 2. Why have new forms of transportation often been opposed? 3. In what respects has the progress in transportation changed civilization? 4. In what respects must the railroad compete with the automobile and the airplane if it is to survive? 5. Point out the advantages of each type of transportation. 6. Discuss the problems created by competition in transportation. How have these problems been coped with in our democracy? What problems remain unsolved? What new problems are now arising? Are these similar problems created by competition in other industries in the United States? V\ hat is being done to solve these problems? 7. What values must be conserved in solving problems of wasteful duplication of effort and inefficient, uncoordinated operation, in order to preserve the fertility of invention and the opportunity for change in a democracy? 8. What would be the relative advantages and disadvantages of government ownership and operation of the railroads? 9. Why is water transportation still the cheapest form of transportation? 10. How are the railroads meeting the new competition created by automobiles, trucks, buses, and airplanes? 11. Do you know of any legislation in recent days that suggests the possibility that one group of transportation interests is substituting political pressure for research, and thus delaying progress in transportation, which was so characteristic of the early history of transportation?