350 FORMS OF ENERGY Can some way be found to keep lunatics and the otherwise unfit from driving automobiles? The psychopathic clinic of the Detroit Recorder's Court examined 467 traffic violators in 1938 and obtained the following startling results: Insane 7 On verge of insanity 40 Feeble-minded 46 Physical handicaps that made them unsafe drivers 33 Lacked social intelligence 342 Can something be done to keep intoxicated people from driving automobiles? And what shall we do about the intoxication that causes so many pedestrian deaths? Can people be educated to be courteous? The above questions indicate the immensity of the problems to be solved by modern society. One of the essentials of social intelligence is courtesy, i.e., thinking of the other fellow. Characteristics of a Courteous Driver. 1. Parks so as not to obstruct traffic. 2. Slows down in congested districts. 3. Never drives so fast that he cannot stop in the range of his headlights. 4. Dims or tilts his lights when approaching another car. 5. Never drives when intoxicated. 6. Does not drive when very tired. 7. Drives slowly at dusk. 8. At street and road intersections gives the right of way to the car coming toward his right. 9. Warns other cars when he is going to slow down, stop, or turn. 10. Slows down on curves. Characteristics of a Courteous Pedestrian. 1. Crosses streets only at intersections and with the green light. 2. Does not step out carelessly from behind parked cars. 3. Obeys traffic signals. 4. Does not allow any member of his family to play in the street. 5. Walks on the left side of a highway and carries a flashlight or reflector at night. Do you realize that you stand a chance of 1 to 12.5 of being killed or injured by an automobile during the next ten years at the present accident rates and that your chances become 50 to 12.5 if you cut out of line of traffic, 21 to 12.5 if you pass another car on a curve, and 10 to 12.5 if you pass a car on a hill?
THE AUTOMOBILE 351 STUDY QUESTIONS 1. How do modern automobiles differ from those manufactured in 1900? 2. In what respects has highway development affected modern life? 3. What are the major unsolved problems created by the development of highways? 4. In what respects does the development of the automobile typify the impact of physical science on society? 5. What are the social consequences of the development of the automobile? 6. In what respects have our modern highway systems affected society? 7. Why should highways be recognized as an investment rather than an expense? 8. Why has the use of the automobile been more widespread in the United States than in Europe? 9. What have been the major factors in the decrease in the cost of operating an automobile? 10. What have been the major trends in automobile design? 11. Why have automobiles not been designed to yield greater efficiency as have the European automobiles? 12. Why should one not use his brakes unnecessarily? 13. Why should one avoid rapid changes in speed at any time? 14. Why should one use lower gears on grades? 15. What is the effect of high speeds on the cost of operating an automobile? 16. How should a new automobile be broken in? 17. What are some of the rules that a courteous pedestrian would follow? 18. Would it be better to abolish automobiles and thus make it safer to become intoxicated than it would to abolish intoxication? Inasmuch as neither can be abolished, what shall we do? 19. Is intoxication a social or moral problem? 20. Which man is likely to receive the heavier punishment, the man who deliberately runs down a child or the intoxicated driver who " is not responsible for what he does"? 21. What are the causes of overheating an automobile, and why is overheating objectionable? 22. Why should an automobile engine be left running for some time after a long hot drive? 23. Why should a hot automobile engine be left running when pouring cold water into the radiator? 24. List a few driving errors and explain why they are errors. 25. How often should the oil in an automobile crankcase be changed? 26. How heavy an oil should one use in an automobile? 27. What is the cause of a smoky automobile exhaust? 28. What are the functions of an automobile oil? 29. Mention a few lubricating errors and explain why they are errors. 30. Suggest some of the possible improvements that should be found in automobiles ten years hence. 31. List the causes of automobile accidents. 32. Suggest some possible methods of reducing automobile accidents. 33. Give the characteristics of a socially intelligent automobile driver. 34. Give the characteristics of a socially intelligent pedestrian.