Man's physical universe

xanabras

354 FORMS OF ENERGY

1913 — At the beginning of World War I, France and Germany

each possessed about 600 miHtary planes, and England 150.

Top speed of airplanes was 126 miles per hour. Progress in

aviation came to a standstill. Pusher-type airplanes with the

propeller behind the pilot gave way to tractor planes with the

propeller in front of the plane when it was found possible to

synchronize the firing of a machine gun with the propeller.

1919 — Top speed of airplanes was 127 miles per hour. Lieutenant

Commander Albert C. Read and his crew flew across the

Atlantic Ocean in a flying boat of the American Navy. John

Alcock and Arthur Brown made a nonstop flight of 1980

miles from Newfoundland to Ireland in 16 hours at a speed

of 120 miles per hour. Ross Smith flew 14,000 miles from

London to Australia in a series of hops.

1926 — Roman Franco flew from Spain to Buenos Aires; Richard

Byrd and Floyd Bennett flew over the North Pole.

1927 — Francisco de Pinedo, an Italian, completed a well-planned

trip that took him to Africa, South America, North America,

and Europe, which demonstrated what scientific preparation

and navigation can do. Charles A. Lindbergh flew from New

York to Paris, a distance of 3325 miles, in 33}/^ hours. He

depended upon dead reckoning for navigation. Perhaps no

one in history ever received so many honors in such a brief

space of time. Lieutenants Lester J, Maitland and Albert

Hegenberger of the United States Army flew from the American

mainland to Hawaii, guided by a radio beam.

1928 — Captain Kingsford-Smith and his crew flew the Southern Cross

across the Pacific from San Francisco to Brisbane, Australia.

Amelia Earhart, with W. Stultz and L. Gordon, was the first

woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean in an airplane.

1929 — Rear Admiral Byrd flew over the South Pole.

1930 — Two Frenchmen, Dieudonne Costes and Maurice Bellonte

made a nonstop trip from Paris to New York.

1931 — General Italo Balbo flew ten flying boats from Africa to Brazil.

Post and Gatty flew around the world in 8 days and 15 hours.

Boardman Polando flew from New York to Istanbul nonstop

in 49 hours.

1932 — Amelia Earhart made a solo trip from Newfoundland to Ireland.

1933 — Wiley Post completed a solo flight around the world in 7 days,

18 hours, and 49}/^ minutes.

1937 — Three Russian airmen, Chkalov, Baidukov, and Beliakov,

flew nonstop 5288 miles from Moscow, Russia, to Vancouver,

British Columbia. Three other Russian airmen soon flew

6262 miles from Moscow to San Jacinto, California.

1938 — Howard Hughes and his crew flew around the world a distance

of 14,672 miles in 3 days, 19 hours, 14 minutes, and 10 seconds.

A German Heinkel fighting plane averaged 394 miles per hour.

A Japanese plane flew 7240 miles nonstop with a crew of

three. An Italian plane flew to an altitude of 56,046 feet. A

42-passenger airliner was launched.